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IJCTA-Volume 2 Issue 3/ May-June 2011
S.No
Title/Author Name
Page No
1
A Survey on Multicast rekeying for Secure Group Communication
-S.Sasikala Devi,Dr. Antony Selvadoss Danamani
Abstract
For any multicast group communication, group key agreement was found to be challenging because of its dynamic nature. Group key management scheme are of either distributed, centralized or hybrid architecture. Although many solutions have been proposed to handle group key changes, this paper gives the aspects of rekeying performed by those schemes. In the entire existing scheme the primary security mechanism of group communication is achieved by conventional encryption algorithms, in which key distribution and rekeying of the group key was done by Group controller. This paper explores the various algorithms along with the performances and derives an improved method. In this paper we propose a distributed key distribution scheme, using a logical group key structure, PFMH tree, and the concept of virtual user position. This approach ensures the forward secrecy and backward secrecy, reduces the rekeying complexity, communication, computation and storage complexity and time cost.
Keywords:
Multicast, tree-based key distribution, multicast key distribution schemes, logical group key structure, rekeying, erasure decoding.
385-391

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2
Performance Evaluation of MANET Routing Protocols under CBR and FTP Traffic Classes
-M.L Sharma,Noor Fatima Rizvi,Nipun Sharma,Anu Malhan,Swati Sharma
Abstract
Understanding the performance of routing protocols in ad hoc networks is a key feature to determine which routing protocol is best suited for which type of network scenario. From the literature survey it was found that there is a lot of work done on evaluating the performance [3] of various MANET routing protocols for CBR traffic but there is very little work done for variable bit rate like FTP, TELNET type of traffic.
So, in this paper it is proposed to evaluate and analyze the performance of proactive (WRP) and reactive (AODV, DSR) routing protocols based on traffic generators like FTP under different network scenarios like pause time, offered load (i.e. number of source destination pairs), node speed.
Keywords:
Ad-Hoc Networks, Performance Evaluation, Packet Delivery Ratio, CBR, FTP.
392-400


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3
Studying the Importance and Feasibility of Software Testing
-Anil Kumar Velupula,Dr.Ch GVN Prasad,Shanmukhananda Reddy Kurli
Abstract
Software testing is a critical element of software quality assurance and represents the ultimate review of specification, design and coding. Software testing is the process of testing the functionality and correctness of software by running it. Software testing is usually performed for one of two reasons: defect detection, and reliability estimation. The problem of applying software testing to defect detection is that software can only suggest the presence of flaws, not their absence (unless the testing is exhaustive). The problem of applying software testing to reliability estimation is that the input distribution used for selecting test cases may be flawed. The key to software testing is trying to find the modes of failure - something that requires exhaustively testing the code on all possible inputs. Software Testing, depending on the testing method employed can be implemented at any time in the development process.
401-409

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4
Behavioural Response of Elasto-Plastic Deformations for Concrete Cylindrical Shells Using 4 Noded Flat Plate Elements by Finite Element Method of Analysis with an Incremental Loading Technique
-S. S. Angalekar,Dr. A. B. Kulkarni
Abstract
Paper deals with the phenomenon of elasto-plastic deformations for the concrete cylindrical shells. The investigation is conducted through finite element modelling wherein for a fixed geometry of the section. The parameters of span are considered. The thickness for the problems tackled is kept equal to 12.5cms considering shell as thin type. The initial point of the analysis is the inherent elastic stresses arising from the self weight of the shells. Subsequent loading is in the form of small size loading increments wherein two types of loads are considered. These are uniform surcharge over the top surface of shell and longitudinal thrust over the span. For the finite element modelling, the type of element considered is 4 noded flat plate elements. The results related to the elasto-plastic deformations are presented in the form of the plastic flow pattern as the applied load is incremented.
Keywords:
Thin cylindrical concrete shell, elasto-plastic deformation, incremental loading, plastic flow pattern, reserved strength capacity, collapse load.

410-413



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5
Implementation of Four Walsh Transform Sectors for Image Retrieval from Image Databases
-P. Kalpana,Dr. Ch GVN Prasad,Krupani
Abstract
The work of this paper presents the new idea of using Walsh transform to generate the feature vector for content based image retrieval. The complex Walsh transform is conceived by multiplying Sal functions by j and combining them with Cal functions of the same frequency. The angle is calculated by taking tan inverse of sal/cal in the range of 0 to 360 degrees which is divided into 4 sectors. The mean of real and imaginary values of these sectors in all three color planes are considered to design the feature vector of 24 components all together. The algorithm proposed here is worked over database of 270 images spread over 11 different classes. The Euclidean distance is used as similarity measure. Average precision and recall is calculated for the performance evaluation. The overall average of cross over points of precision and recall is above 50%.
414-417


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6

Aspects of Data Quality in Data Warehouse Systems: An Analysis
-Subramanyam Vangara,Dr. Ch GVN Prasad
(PAPER WITHDRAWN BY THE AUTHOR)


418-425

 

7
Modified ATPG Method by feeling don’t care bit for optimization of switching activities
-Chetan Sharma
Abstract
Test power is major issue of current scenario of VLSI testing. There are different test pattern generation techniques for testing of combinational circuits. This paper gives a new advancement in automatic test pattern generation method by feeling don’t care bit of the test vector to optimize the switching activities. Finally this concept produces low power testing.
Keywords: ATPG method, D Routh’s algorithm, Boolean difference method, Switching activity.
426-430


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8

 

Effective method of Initial Seed Selection Used for Color Image Segmentation
-A. V. Anjikar,V. K. Shandilya
Abstract
We propose a method of initial seed selection used for color image segmentation. In this paper Initial seed selection is a starting stage of color image segmentation. This method is based on HSV color model. Here we use two details; one is non-edge pixels and second is smoothness feature of the pixels. The non-edge pixels and smoothness at pixel’s neighbor are used as criteria to determine initial seeds in the color image. No-edge information provide those pixels are not on the edge and smoothness provides pixels have high similarity to its neighbors. This method is applied to many color images and experimental results show the effectiveness of the method.
Keywords-image segmentation; seed selection; non-edge; smoothness.
431-432


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9
Data Embedding In Multimedia and Improved Digital Watermarking Techniques
-Kishore Nerella,Dr.Ch GVN Prasad,Kishore Kumar Kalluri,Nagendra Chary Kotthoju
Abstract
Digital watermarking is a technology being developed to ensure security and protection of multimedia data. The purpose of digital watermarking is not to restrict use of multimedia resources, but rather to facilitate data authentication and copyright protection. In this paper, we discuss the general requirements on data hiding and digital watermarking. It includes topics in spatial watermarking; spread spectrum watermarking, spectral watermarking, and a brief survey of currently available commercial and public domain software are provided. The Improved technique is robust to image/video compression, and one can recover the hidden data without requiring the availability of the host signal. The new scheme enables signature images to be as much as 25% of the host image data, and hence could be used both in digital watermarking as well as in image data embedding.
Keywords: Watermarking Techniques, robustness, DCT, Spread Spectrum Approach, Fractal Operations, Transform-Based Approaches, Lapped Orthogonal Transform.
433-438



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10
Hybrid Video Stabilization Technique for Hand Held Mobile Videos
-Paresh Rawat,Dr. Jyoti Singhai
Abstract
The videos taken from hand held mobile cameras suffer from different undesired slow motions like track, boom or pan. Hence it is desired to synthesis a new stabilized video sequence, by removing the undesired motion between the successive frames. Most of the previous methods assumes the camera motion model hence have limitation to process gorse motion. The efficiency of feature based methods depend on the ability of feature point selection and might cause temporal inconsistency in case of fast moving object in static scene. By taking consideration of slow motion limitation; the paper proposed a hybrid video stabilization technique using hierarchical differential global motion estimation and combination of gaussian kernel filtering is then added to eliminate accumulation error. The method is simple and computationally efficient, and is experimented on the large variety of videos taken in real time environment with different motions. It is found that proposed method not only effectively removes the undesired motion, but also minimizes the missing frame area.
Key words: Video stabilization, Global motion estimation, motion smoothing.
439-445

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11
The Technology Journey from Floppy disk to Cloud storage
-Goutham Kumar Reddy P,Dr. Ch GVN Prasad,Danesh Yeshamoni,Durga Prasad Palanati
Abstract
Data storage and backup needs have evolved over the years necessitating the need for evolution of data storage methods and devices. The needs for a higher storage capacity as well as versatility of storage devices and the need for technologically advanced storage devices became apparent..
446-450


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12
A Data Mining Approach to Generation of Persistent Data Using Relative Data Analysis
-B.V.V.S.Prasad,Srinivas Eku,Balashivudu Udutala,Anusha Masu
Abstract
Traditional association rule mining method mines association rules only for the items bought by the customer. However an actual transaction consists of the items bought by the customer along with the quantity of items bought. This paper reconsiders the traditional database by taking into account both items as well as its quantity. This new transaction database is named as bag database and each transaction consists of item along with its quantity (called itembag). This paper proposes algorithms for mining frequent items as well as rare items from the bag database. The method for mining frequent items from the database makes use of fuzzy functions to avoid sharp boundaries between itemsets and the method for mining rare items makes use of relative support to discover rare data that appear infrequently in the database but are highly associated with specific data.
Keywords: Bag Database, Mining, Itembag, Association Rule, Fuzzy Function
451-455


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13
Performance Analysis of Intrusion Detection in MANET
-Rohit Sharma,Samridhi Sharma
Abstract
A Mobile Adhoc Network is a collection of autonomous nodes or terminals which communicate with each other by forming a multihop radio network without the aid of any established infrastructure or centralized administration such as a base station. The Adhoc Network provides lack of secure boundaries. At present, the security issues on Mobile Adhoc Network have become one of the primary concerns. The MANET is more vulnerable to attacks as compared to wired networks due to distributed nature and lacks of infrastructure. Those vulnerabilities are nature of the MANET structure that cannot be removed easily. As a result, attacks with malicious intent have been and will be devised to exploit those vulnerabilities and to cripple the MANET Operation. Attacks prevention techniques such as a authentication and encryption, can be used as medium of defense for decreasing the possibilities of attacks. These techniques have a limitation on the effects of prevention techniques in practice and they are designed for a set of known attacks. They are unlikely to prevent newer attacks that are designed for circumventing the existing security measures. For this purpose, there exist a need of mechanism that “detect and response” these type of newer attacks i.e. “Intrusion and Detection”. Intrusion detection provide audit and monitoring capabilities that offer the local security to a node and help to perceive the specific trust level of other node. In addition to this ontology is a proven tool for this type of analysis. In this paper, specific ontology has been modeled which aims to explore and to classify current technique of Intrusion Detection System (IDS) aware MANET. To support these ideas, a discussion regarding attacks, IDS architecture and IDS in MANET are presented inclusively and then the comparison among several researches achievement will be evaluated based on these parameters.
KEYWORDS: Mobile AD hoc Network, IDS, Attacks in MANET.
456-462

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14
Efficient Speech Recognition by Using Modular Neural Network
-Dr.R.L.K.Venkateswarlu,Dr. R. Vasantha Kumari,A.K.V.Nagayya
Abstract
The Modular approach and Neural Network approach are well known concepts in the research and engineering community. By combining these two together, the Modular Neural Network approach is very effective in searching for solutions to complex problems of various fields. The aim of this study is the distribution of the complexity for the ambiguous words classification task on a set of modules. Each of these modules is a single Neural Network which is characterized by its high degree of specialization. The number of interfaces, and there with possibilities for filtering external acoustic – phonetic knowledge, increases a modular architecture. Modular Neural Network (MNN) for speech recognition is presented with speaker dependent single word recognition in this paper. Using this approach by taking computational effort into account, the system performance can be accessed. The active performance is found maximum for MFCC while training with Modular Neural Network classifiers as 99.88%. The active performance is found maximum for LPCC while training with Modular Neural Network classifier as 99.77%. It is found that MFCC performance is superior to LPCC performance while training the speech data with Modular Neural Network classifier.
Keywords: Phonetic knowledge, Modular architecture, Mel-frequency cepstral coefficient, Linear predictive coefficients, Classifier, Training
463-470

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15
Predictive Branching Methods and Architectures - A survey
-Chhayadevi M bhamare,Meghanand Bhamare
Abstract
In high-performance computer systems, performance losses due to conditional branch instruction can be minimized by predicting a branch outcome and fetching, decoding and/or issuing subsequent instructions before the actual outcome is known. This paper discusses various branch prediction strategies and architectures with the goal of maximizing prediction accuracy.
Keywords—Branch, Branch Prediction, Branch Transfer Buffer , Pipelining ,Two Level Branching, Branch Penalty.
471-474

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16
A New Paradigm for the Next Generation Wireless Optimization Cross Layer Design
-K. Ravi,Dr. Mohammed Ali Hussain, R.Tirupathi
Abstract
Cross-Layer Design (CLD) is a new paradigm that allows the optimization of communication network architectures across the traditional layer boundaries, but does not imply a change of the present layered architecture.
Cross-Layer optimization is used in multi media application this is also used in run this type of applications parallel so that network resources are shared. Cross-layer optimization usually improves network capacity and increases the number of users being served.
Keywords: Cross Layer, 4G, Resource Sharing, Network, Optimization, Network Capacity, Quality of Service, Wireless Video Streaming.
475-484


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17
Issues in Developing Open Source Licensing Tool for Controllers in the Context of BA (Building Automation)
-Shah Ujval, M Rajasekhara Babu, M Khalid
Abstract
Over the past ten years building owners, Managers and consulting engineers from the different Manufacturers/Vendors have become the increasingly frustrated by incompatibilities and limited Mechanism for the integration of building automation and control systems(BAS)[1] because a site may have BAS equipment from multiple manufacturers in the field . A controller comes with different functionalities. Some of the functionalities will be locked down by the manufactures. There are times when site engineer need to lock or unlock the particular functionality of the controllers, called licensing. As Controllers are part of BAS, there are at present three issues in Developing open source licensing tool, and they mainly concentrate on BAS integration. They are Integration between BAS and existing Enterprise applications, integration of widely used open protocol standards (e.g. BACnet or LonTalk), and integration of subsystems (HVAC systems, fire safety systems, life safety, lighting systems [11]) of BAS [14]. Though today many solutions are available, Integration of diverse and heterogeneous BAS systems is a challenge. The paper describes the issues in developing open source licensing tool and how to overcome these issues.
Keywords: Building Automation and control Systems (BAS); System integration; licensing;
485-489


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18
Requirements Engineering In Current Web Engineering Methodologies
-R. Jeyakarthik
Abstract
Web engineering – the discipline concerned with the development of quality web applications has been receiving a lot of attention in the recent era with the increasing number of web projects being undertaken by many organizations. Many methodologies have been proposed in this regard. Requirements engineering – being an integral and crucial phase in traditional software engineering, also necessitates a careful consideration in web engineering as well. The present paper presents an overview of how well the available web engineering methodologies address requirements engineering. The types of requirements, techniques, activities and the level of detail supported by the web engineering methodologies available today are tabulated and this throws light on the need for new methodologies that address requirements engineering in a greater depth for web applications.
490-497

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19
Design Approach for Fault Tolerance Algorithm in FPGA Architecture with BIST in Hardware Controller
-Shweta S. Meshram,Sanjay O. Dahad,Ujwala A. Belorkar
Abstract
Redundancy based hardening techniques are applied at the pre-synthesis or synthesis level. To provide solutions for increasing the fault-tolerance capabilities with algorithms able to reduce sensitive configuration memory bits of FPGAs we use BIST method. While these systems frequently contain hardware redundancy to allow for continued operation in the presence of operational faults, the need to recover faulty hardware and return it to full functionality quickly and efficiently is great. In addition to providing functional density, FPGAs provide a level of fault tolerance generally not found in mask-programmable devices by including the capability to reconfigure around operational faults in the field. Reliability and process variability are serious issues for FPGAs in the future. With advancement in process technology, the feature size is decreasing which leads to higher defect densities, more sophisticated techniques at increased costs are required to avoid defects. In this work we present a solution in which configuration bit-stream of FPGA is modified by a hardware controller that is present on the chip itself. The technique uses redundant device for replacing faulty device and increases the yield.
Keywords: Redundancy, Fault Tolerance, FPGA architecture, Hardware controller
498-501


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20
Comparative Performance of Arm and Farm on a Normalised Datasets
-Prachi Singh Thakur,Jitendra Agrawal
Abstract
Association rule mining is basically used to generate association rules on a real life datasets. A well-known algorithm called apriori is used to generate the frequent pattern itemsets for a given transaction. Since real life dataset consist of nominal, continuous, integer attribute fields, to convert it into binary format some type of pre-processing has to be done on the dataset.
In this paper, we had evaluated the performance of two algorithms that is ARM(Association Rule Mining) and FARM(Fuzzy Association Rule Mining) on the basis of generation time by supplying different support and confidence values.for data pre-processing ,two methods are used: discretisation and normalisation. Discretisation converts the range of possible values of continuous data into subranges which is identified by a unique integer label .It also convert values associated with instances to corresponding integer label. Normalisation process converts values of nominal data into corresponding integer labels.
502-509

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