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IJCTA-Volume 2 Issue 4/ July-August 2011
S.No
Title/Author Name
Page No
1
An Efficient Architecture of Residue to Binary Converter for New Four- Moduli Set
-Sahel Riazi,Somayeh Hassanpour,Mehdi Hosseinzadeh
Abstract
In this paper a new four-moduli set for even n is presented that has 4n-bit dynamic range and contains well-formed moduli which makes it suitable for using in residue number system arithmetic unit. An efficient two-level reverse converter based on Chinese Remainder Theorem and Mixed Radix Conversion is designed. Hardware implementation of the reverse converter is mainly based on modulo adders and carry save adders. This proposed reverse converter is efficient in terms of area and delay in comparison with previously introduced four-moduli sets that has the same dynamic range with our proposed moduli set
709-715


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2
The Role of Quality Assurance in Software Development Projects: Project Failures and Business Performance
-Dr. Emmanuel Ichu,Dr. Rao Nemani
Abstract
Despite rapid advances in all facets of technology, the software industry still struggles with the formidable task of developing software applications that meet quality standards, and budget constraints. The need for software to be error-free remained a challenge to the IT industry. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study is to answer why executives reluctant to allocate resources to quality assurance (QA) process during the process of the system development life cycle (SDLC)? This research used a qualitative study design to investigate to what extent the involvement of QA during the SDLC process reduced software project failures. The data were analyzed using inductive methods and was intended to be generalized to the entire IT software development population. Participants were selected from major cities of the 50 United States that fit study criteria. The research indicated a sense that inclusion of QA in all phases of SDLC was an excellent phenomenon
716-725


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3
An Indexed based Congestion Aware Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks
-S.Janarathanan, M.Kumaran, V.Seedha Devi, V.Balaji Vijayan
Abstract
Energy efficient protocol is very important in wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) because the nodes in WSNs are usually battery operated sensing devices with limited energy resources and replacing the batteries is usually not an option. Thus energy efficiency is one of the most important issues in WSNs. Routing protocols which only consider energy as their parameter is not efficient. In addition to energy efficiency, using other parameters makes routing protocol more efficient. For different applications, different parameters should be considered. One of the most important parameter is congestion management. Congestion management can affect routing protocol performance. Congestion occurrence in network nodes leads to increase packet loss and energy consumption. Another parameter which affects routing protocol efficiency is providing fairness in nodes energy consumption. When fairness is not considered in routing process, network will be partitioned very soon and then the network performance will be decreased. To overcome these issues, an Index Base Congestion aware Routing Protocol (ICRP) proposed. The proposed protocol is energy efficient routing protocols which try to control congestion and to provide fairness in network. The main goal in ICRP provides solution for better energy utilization of a node and better Quality of Services (QoS).
Keywords – Tree Based Routing, Congestion Aware, Routing Protocol, WSNs.
726-732


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4
Reletive Distance Mobile AD HOC Networks (RDMAR)
-Deepak Kumar,Dr. P.K. Jakhar
Abstract
Ad hoc networks are characterized by wireless connectivity, continuous changing topology, distributed operation and ease of deployment routing in Ad hoc networks is a challenge due to mobility and thus is a current area of research. In context of Mobile Ad hoc networks (MANET) we can say that Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is collection of multi-hop wireless mobile nodes that communicate with each other without centralized control or established infrastructure. The wireless links in this network are highly error prone and can go down frequently due to mobility of nodes, interference and less infrastructure. Considering the importance of reactive routing protocols, we have all protocols share similar on- demand behavior, but their internal mechanisms lead to significant difference in their performance of the protocols by various network load and mobility. In recent years, several routing protocols have been proposed for mobile ad hoc networks and prominent among them are DSR, AODV, TORA and RDMAR. This research paper provides an overview of RDMAR protocol by presenting its characteristics, functionality, benefits and limitations.We concentrate on RDMAR routing protocol.
Keywords—RDMAR, Topology, MANET,. Paper – Research Paper.
733-735

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5
Intensified Leveling and Assessment System in Intelligent Tutoring using Decision Tree and Item Response Theory
-R. Kavitha
Abstract
Due to the rapid growth of information and communication technology, the education environment has being enriched and become more diversified. Hence computer based assessment came as a prevalent method of administering the tests. Randomization of test items here may produce unfair effect on test takers which is unproductive in the outcome of the test. There is a need to develop the Intelligent Tutoring System that assigns intelligent question depending on the student’s response in the testing session. It will be more productive when the questions are assigned based on the learner ability in the early stage itself. So, this study focus on building up a framework to automatically assign intelligent question based on the learner ability not only all through the session, but also on entry. At end, automatic up gradation of the question levels can be done dynamically. The questions are classified based on item difficulty using Item Response Theory model. The learners are classified based on their level by Decision Tree using ID3 algorithm. Thereby the objective of Intelligent Tutoring System is achieved by using adaptability and intelligence in testing.
736-740


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6
Intelligent Evaluation of Fabrics’ Elastic Properties from Simulated Drape Test
-Hassen Hedfi,Adel Ghith,Hédi Bel Hadj Salah
Abstract
In this paper we propose an intelligent method for identifying several mechanical parameters of woven fabric. The mechanical fabric characterization requires several expensive experimental tests. An alternative to overcome this problem is to use an inverse identification based on simulation of drape test using the finite element method combined with a learning artificial neural networks. To do this, a database containing a number of fabrics characterized is developed. This database will be used to train the neural network to predict the mechanical properties of textile material from drape’s properties. In this way, the mechanical properties of fabric will be identified by simulating the drape test. By comparing drape properties obtained numerically with those obtained experimentally; the elastic properties will be adjusted in the numerical model. The process is repeated until there is little difference between the simulated and actual drape. This approach is tested on several cases and the results are convincing for a wide range of fabrics.
Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, Inverse Identification, Fabric Drape, Finite Element Method
741-749


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7
Congestion Control Avoidance in ADHOC Network using Queuing Model
-G.Vijaya Lakshmi,Dr. C.Shoba Bindhu
Abstract
Mobile adhoc network is an emerging standard or wireless communication. Due to the impendence in infrastructure dependencies these networks are rapidly emerging. These networks are since evolving has to develop methodologies for the compatibility of current services in such an environment. Various services compatibilities were studied and methodologies were proposed for the same. One basic problem observed during the incorporation of services in adhoc network is the traffic flow, and its proper modeling. As the demanded service increases the variability in the links increases. Due to the dynamicity of the link factors there are various issues been observed, in which congestion is one of the problem. Congestion is caused when the offered load to the network is more than the available resources. To overcome the congestion problem in mobile adhoc network a queuing model is suggested in the current work. The queuing mechanism is developed based on the probability distribution in different range of communication. The queuing mechanism hence improves the network metrics such as overall network throughput, reduces the route delay, overhead and traffic blockage probability. The approach is generated over a routing scheme in adhoc network. A Matlab simulation is developed for the suggested approach and evaluated for multiple network environments to evaluate the system performance.
Keywords: Manets, Queuing theory, WNCS, State dependent models.
750-760

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8

 

Heap Base Coordinator Finding with Fault Tolerant Method in
Distributed Systems

-Mehdi EffatParvar, AmirMasoud Rahmani, MohammadReza EffatParvar,Mehdi Dehghan
Abstract
Coordinator finding in wireless networks is a very important problem, and this problem is solved bysuitable algorithms. The main goals of coordinat or finding are synchronizing the processes at optimal using of the resources. Many different algorithms have been presented for coordinator finding. The most important leader election algorithms are the Bully and Ring algorithms. In this paper we analyze and compare these algorithms with together and we propose new approach with fault tolerant mechanisms base on heap forco ordinator finding in wireless environment. Ouralgorithm's running time and message complexity compare favorably with existing algorithms. Our workinvolves substantial modifications of an existing algorithm and its proof, and we adapt the existing algorithms to the noisy environment base on fault tolerant mechanisms.
761-766



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9
A Genetic Optimization approach for finding common Motif in Biological Sequences
-Vishal,Shailendra Singh
Abstract
The field of Bioinformatics is gaining much attention these days due to advancement of computer programs and molecular biology, but there are many human activities which are lying unknown yet. Finding common motif is also a major topic in the field. As with the similarity in the sequences, their families and activities can be identified easily when one of the sequences is tested. The common motif finding can help finding unknown members of a family and can help in applications like drug design. In this paper, it is proposed to find common motif in biological sequences. Here RNA sequences are used. The paper is divided mainly in to three sections. Firstly some basics of bioinformatics are discussed followed by the proposed approach and finally the result and conclusions are presented.
767-772


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10
Shark Fish Classification through Image Processing using Wavelet Transformation and Enhanced Edge Detection Technology
-G.T.Shrivakshan,Dr.C. Chandrasekar
Abstract
This paper proposes a novel way of classifying shark fishes based on image processing using Wavelet Transformation for detecting the edges, specially the two dimensional Haar wavelet transformation of images. In this paper the morphological features of different types of sharks compared with the given sample shark that is being identified to which category it belongs to. Applying the wavelet transformation which incorporates the concept of multi-threading. The paper proposes the enhanced edge detection technology and uses the concept of concurrency to identify the shark image.
Keywords: Image processing, Haar wavelet transformation, edge-detection, multi-threading.
773-783


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11
Unification of Subspace Clustering and Outliers Detection On High Dimensional Data
-Sarala.R, Prakruthi.V, Prathibha Annapurna.P, Saranya.S
Abstract
With the unanticipated requisites springing up in the data mining sector, it has become essential to group and classify patterns optimally in different objects based on their attributes, and detect the abnormalities in the object dataset. The grouping of similar objects can be best done with clustering based on the different dimensional attributes. When clustering high dimensional objects, the accuracy and efficiency of traditional clustering algorithms have been very poor, because objects may belong to different clusters in different subspaces comprised of different combinations of dimensions. By utilizing the subspace clustering as a method to initialize the centroids, and combine with fuzzy logic, this paper offers a fuzzy subtractive subspace clustering algorithm for automatically determining the optimal number of clusters. By our new Fuzzy Outlier detection and ranking approach, we detect and rank the outliers in heterogeneous high dimensional data. The experiment results show that the proposed clustering algorithm can give better cluster validation performance than the existing techniques.
784-789


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12
A Review of Various Security Protocols in Wireless Sensor Network
-Anupma Sangwan, Deepti Sindhu, Kulbir Singh
Abstract
Sensor networks are highly distributed networks of small, light weight wireless sensor nodes, deployed in large numbers to monitor the environment or system by the measurement of physical parameters such as temperature, pressure, or relative humidity, sound,vibration, motion or pollutants, at different locations. A WSN [1] is composed of a large number of low-costsensor nodes (SNs) and one or several base stations(BS) or destination nodes. SNs are typically small wireless devices with limited computational power,equipped with a radio transceiver or other wireless communications device, radio transmission range, storage size, a small microcontroller, battery power.Sink nodes or destination nodes are distinguishing devices with powerful computation capacity, large memory size, high power energy and long communication range so as to collect data from SNs.Sink nodes act as the gateway between WSNs and the end user.
790-797

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13
Reliable Software Development with Proposed Quality Oriented Software Testing Metrics
-Latika Kharb, Dr. Vijay Singh Rathore
Abstract
For an effective test measurement, a software tester requires a testing metrics that could measure the quality and productivity of software development process along with increasing its reusability, correctness and maintainability. Until now, the understanding of measuring software quality is not yet sophisticated enough and is still far away from being standardized and in order to assess the software quality, an appropriate set of software metrics needs to be identified that could express these quality attributes. Our research objective in this paper is to construct and define a set of easy-to measure software metrics for testing to be used as early indicators of external measures of quality. So, we’ve emphasized on the fact that reliable software development with respect to quality could be well achieved by using our set of testing metrics, and for that we’ve given the practical results of evaluation.
798-802


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14
Security Enhancement in MANET with 4G
-Deepak Chayal, Dr. Vijay Singh Rathore
Abstract
Ad hoc networks seem to have commercial potential in business meeting places, hotspots, home environments and personal areas allowing fast exchange of documents during meetings, exchange of data when playing games in a group of users and connecting home appliance among other uses. In the context of the heterogeneous and integrated 4G environment, ad hoc networking is considered an important solution to extend the radio coverage of wireless systems and multimedia Internet services to wireless environments. 4G Technology is basically the extension in the 3G technology with more bandwidth and service offers in the 3G. The expectation for the 4G technology is basically the high quality audio/video streaming over end to end Internet Protocol. As the need for fastest communication is the foremost priority of present era also the need of quick data transfer, distant business correspondence by sharing data becomes very important. In this paper, we’ve dealt with the primary challenge of building security in MANETs and also maintain the information required to properly route traffic. Along with this, we have also discussed about the potentials of 4G technology.
803-806

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15
An Efficient Method for Content Aware Image Resizing Using PSC
-K. Thilagam, Dr. S. Karthikeyan
Abstract
Digital image processing is the most common and versatile method of processing image data and has got wide applications. With the invention of many display devices of varying resolutions (Mobile display, PDA etc.), it became essential to resize the images to suit the target devices on which it is displayed. It include content unaware methods (Cropping, Scaling, Warping etc.) and also content aware methods like Seam carving which has gained popularity lately. Seam Carving uses a simple image operator called seam. Seam is an optimal 8-connected path of pixels on a single image from top to bottom, or left to right, where optimality is defined by an image energy function. By repeatedly carving out or inserting seams we can change the aspect ratio of an image or retarget the image to a new size. This approach claims that the seams must be continuous and monotonical. Continuous seams some times include pixels on the object of interest thereby resizing it (or even distorting it). To overcome the problem an efficient new approach using PSC (piecewise seam carving) is proposed which divides the image into several segments and seam carves each of it individually. It preserves objects of interest by avoiding carving in the segments containing them. This method allows the user to interactively define number of seams in each segment thereby resizing each segment to different ratio. The proposed method works fine even in images where the objects of interest are scattered over the image.
Keywords— PSC-Piecewise Seam Carving, ROI – Region Of Interest.
807-812

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16
The Fuzzy Set by Fuzzy Interval
-Dr.Pranita Goswami
Abstract
Fuzzy set by Fuzzy interval is a triangular fuzzy number lying between the two specified limits. The limits to be not greater than 2 and less than -2 by fuzzy interval have been discussed in this paper. Through fuzzy interval we arrived at exactness which is a fuzzy measure and fuzzy integral
813-815

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17
An Implementation of BLOWFISH Encryption Algorithm using KERBEROS Authentication Mechanism
-Ch Panchamukesh,Prof.T.Venkat Narayana Rao,A.Vijay Kumar
Abstract
The sensitive information stored on computers and transmitted over the Internet need to ensure information security and safety measures. Without our knowledge, the Intruders sneak into the systems, misuse it and even create back doors to our computer systems. Thus, there must not be any compromise in securing our resources. Hence, Cryptography is mainly used to ensure secrecy. Access Control Policy is used for securing the resources as initial state, which determines the potential threats, the solutions and the ways of implementation of the security. Various security solutions to block the unauthenticated users starts from a series mechanism from Firewalls to Kerberos, most of them need a strong cryptographic base. Cryptography provide solutions for four different security areas confidentiality, authentication, integrity and control of interaction between different parties involved in data exchange ultimately which tend to the security of information. Among which Kerberos authentication promises most secured and unbreakable. It works on the basis of granting tickets for each session and resource access. This paper includes a mechanism that implements the Blowfish algorithm with a 64 bit length key with an improved security assurance
816-822


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18
An Heuristic Approach To Object Oriented Paradigm
-Deepali Gupta, Rakesh Kumar
Abstract
Quality of software is increasingly important and testing related issues are becoming crucial for software. Inorder to measure and understand quality, it is necessary torelate it to measurable quantities. Heuristics provide a link between sets of abstract design principles and quantitative software metrics. The aim of object oriented software metrics is to predict quality and improve productivity of the software products. Object-orientation (OO) allows software to be structured in a way that helps to manage complexity and change. This paper shows role of heuristics in object oriented software engineering and how object oriented paradigm differentiate from conventional function oriented paradigm.
Keywords: Software metrics, Function-oriented paradigm, Object-oriented paradigm, Software quality and Heuristics
823-826

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19
Job Satisfaction: Key Factors Influencing Information Technology (IT) Professionals in Washington DC
-Dr. Ify Diala,Dr. Rao Nemani
Abstract
A problem most organizations face is how to retain skilled employees. As technology has gone from common to prevalent over the past twenty years, retaining skilled information technology (IT) professionals has become more difficult. Therefore, this study focused on examining job satisfaction of IT professionals in the D.C. area, paying particular attention to two of the most important factors of job satisfaction for IT workers: autonomy and the opportunity for advancement. Association of Information Technology Professionals (AITP) members from the D.C. metro area were surveyed using the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ). This paper reviewed existing literature to find what other researchers have done to ensure that IT professionals get job satisfaction. The paper went further to identify the most pertinent job satisfaction factors as follows: personality trait, values: extrinsic and intrinsic, working condition and social influence. This study employed quantitative research methods in order to address the research questions; what are the factors that influence IT professional's perceptions of job satisfaction and can organizations and management influence the issue of job satisfaction among IT professionals. The results of this study indicate that general satisfaction is significantly associated with satisfaction levels regarding autonomy and intrinsic factors.
827-838


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20
Implementation of Data Integration using Distributed Systems: A Review
-Rakesh Jaitly
Abstract
Data integration in the distributed data system is introduced to solve the problem that data model has. The data integration in the distributional systems can be supported effectively. Data conversion is still a challenge in distributed system integration. Community based system is used for distributed data integration. It comprises of three elements: community, data model and communication protocol. The integration system solves the data heterogeneous problem in production management, making users check data more transparently and conveniently. The construction of central database is a comprehensive giant engineering system, which directly serves the demands of various application subsystem developments.
839-845

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