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IJCTA-Volume 3 Issue 1/ January-February 2012
S.No
Title/Author Name
Page No
1
Survey on Event tracking and Event Evolution
-S. S. Nandagaonkar, D.B.Hanchate, S.N. Deshmukh
Abstract
Due to the popularity of the Internet, most news stories have electronic versions published on newswires. Retrieving news of the same topic from multiple sources and keeping information updated becomes more convenient and easier. Techniques that are capable of extracting the underlying structure of the news events are desired. They are helpful to understand the evolution of events on the same topic. This paper surveys the different information retrieval techniques such as Topic detection and Tracking (TDT), event tracking and event evolution approaches. TDT is an active research area in recent years. TDT have different techniques on detecting news topics and tracking news stories for a news topic. TDT techniques have been attempting to detecting or clustering news stories into event, without defining or interpreting the association between these events. There also event evolution is a new concept developed recently, that was the first to conduct investigation on event. Event evolution is the transition development process of related events within the same topic. An event evolution graph is constructed to present events relationship.
Keyword: Topic detection and tracking (TDT), event evolution, evolution patterns, event evolution graph
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2
Power Managment of Cell Sites
-R.Surendra,B.Karunaiah,Murali Mohan K V
Abstract
This paper presents a method to design a Power management of Cell Sites. The method makes use of GSM modem. The GSM modem which gives the instant message about the mains power supply to the cell sites. The temperature sensors and relay will sense the temperature of the room and if the main fails the GSM module will send the message to the master mobile which is already set in the system. The cell site base transreciever (BTS) which are operated by Diesel generator, when the power is off we can switch on the Diesel generator by sending the SMS command like (DG ON) or we can switch of the generator with the command (DG OFF).
The method can greatly improve the developing efficiency, reduces the delay and fuel consumption. The proposed one has better performance and involves less hardware complexity. This is a single comprehensive solution that remotely controls and monitors the subsystems inside each base station site and enables network operators to coordinate and manage the conditions at all base station sites across their network.
Keywords— GSM module, base transreciever (BTS), diesel generator
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3
A Comparitive Study of Cryptosystems with Elliptic Curve Cryptography using Digital Signature
-Shipra Shukla,Dharmendra Lal Gupta,Anil Kumar Malviya
Abstract
Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) is coming forth as an attractive public key cryptosystem for mobile/wireless environments compared to conventional cryptosystems like RSA and DSA. ECC provides better security with smaller key sizes, which results in faster computations, lower power consumption, as well as memory and bandwidth savings. However, the true impact of any public-key cryptosystem can only be evaluated in the perspective of a security protocol. The digital signature is the requisite way to ensure the security of web services and has great implication in practical applications. By using a digital signature algorithm we can provide authenticity and validation to the electronic document. ECDSA and ECDH use the concept of ECC. In this article we present ECC and most popular algorithms such as RSA, ECDH, ECES and ECDSA and based on observation a comparative study of all these algorithms have been done.
Keywords: RSA, Digital Signature, ECDSA, ECDH, ECC, ECES
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4
Halftone based Secret Sharing Visual Cryptographic Scheme for Color Image using Bit Analysis
-Pavan Kumar Gupta,Naveen Hemrajani,Savita Shiwani,Ruchi Davey
Abstract
Visual Cryptography is a special type of encryption technique to obscure image-based secret information which can be decrypted by Human Visual System (HVS). It is a kind of secret-sharing scheme that encrypts the secret image into n number of shares. It is imperceptible to reveal the secret information unless a certain number of shares(k) or more are superimposed. As the decryption process is done by human visual system, secret information can be retrieved by anyone if the person gets at least k number of shares. For this, simple visual cryptography is very insecure.
In this current work we have proposed a variable length Symmetric Key based Visual Cryptographic Scheme for color images where a secret key is used to encrypt the image and division of the encrypted image is done using Random Number. Unless the secret key, the original image will not be decrypted. Here secret key ensures the security of the scheme and visual cryptography is used to break the image into number of shares.
Keywords: Visual Cryptography, Secret Sharing, Random Number, Symmetric Key
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5
A Modified Feistel Cipher involving a key as a multiplicant on both the sides of the Plaintext matrix and supplemented with Mixing Permutation and XOR Operation
-V.U.K. Sastry,K. Anup Kumar
Abstract
In this paper, we have developed a block cipher by offering a modification to the classical Feistel cipher. Unlike in the case of the classical Feistel cipher wherein we have a binary string as a plaintext, here we have taken the plaintext as a matrix, which is divided into a pair of matrices. One of these matrices is multiplied with the key matrix on both the sides. The process of encryption is supplemented with a pair of functions called Mix ( ) and Permute ( ). In addition to these two, we have used XOR operation. The avalanche effect and the cryptanalysis indicate that cipher is a strong one.
Key words: Encryption, Decryption, Key matrix, Mix, Permute and XOR.
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6
A Modified Feistel Cipher Involving a Key as a Multiplicant on Both the Sides of the Plaintext Matrix and Supplemented with Mixing, Permutation, and Modular Arithmetic Addition
-V.U.K. Sastry,K. Anup Kumar
Abstract
In this investigation, we have generalized the classical Feistel cipher by representing the plaintext in the form of a matrix instead of a binary string used in the case of classical Feistel cipher. In this, the plaintext matrix is divided into two matrices and one of these two is multiplied with the key matrix on both the sides. In the iteration process, involved in this cipher, we have included a pair of functions namely Mix ( ) and Permute ( ), and also utilized modular arithmetic addition. All these features are expected to strengthen the cipher. The avalanche effect and the cryptanalysis clearly show that the cipher is a potential one.
Key words: Encryption, Decryption, Key matrix, Mix, Permute and Modular Arithmetic Addition.
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7
Premiliniary Study of Outdoor Positioning Acoustic Source Direction of Arrival
-M.Mayilvaganan,M.Devaki
Abstract
Wireless sensor network systems have become revolutionize in recent years. Acoustic source Direction Of Arrival(DOA) is one of the essential phenomenon in many applications. Acoustic sensor network can provide a way to simulatenous monitor and interaction of many sources. This paper provides an preliminary study of Direction Of Arrival(DOA) for outdoor positioning and attempt to classify the different approaches. We focus on Dominant Frequency Selection(DFSE) ,Approximate Maximum Likelihood(AML) and Multiple Signal Classification(MUSIC) methods. We then illustrate and discuss the methods for Direction of Arrival.
Keywords : Direction Of Arrival (DOA); acoustic source; Dominant Frequency Selection(DFSE); Approximate Maximum Likelihood(AML); Mulitple Signal Classification(MUSIC)
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8

 

An Application of Face Recognition System using Image Processing and Neural Networks
-Rakesh Rathi,Manish Choudhary,Bhuwan Chandra
Abstract
In recent years face recognition has received substantial attention from both research communities and the market, but still remained very challenging in real applications. A lot of face recognition algorithms, along with their medications, have been developed during the past decades. A number of typical algorithms are presented. In this paper, we propose to label a Self-Organizing Map (SOM) to measure image similarity. To manage this goal, we feed Facial images associated to the regions of interest into the neural network. At the end of the learning step, each neural unit is tuned to a particular Facial image prototype. Facial recognition is then performed by a probabilistic decision rule. This scheme offers very promising results for face identification dealing with illumination variation and facial poses and expressions. This paper presents a novel Self-Organizing Map (SOM) for face recognition. The SOM method is trained on images from one database. The novelty of this work comes from the integration of A facial recognition system is a computer application for automatically identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video source. One of the way is to do this is by comparing selected facial features from the image and a facial database. It is typically used in security systems and can be compared to other biometrics such as fingerprint or eye iris recognition systems.
Keywords:-Face recognition, self-organizing map, neural network, artificial intelligence, scope.
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9
Performance Evaluation of AODV and ADV Protocols in VANET Scenarios
-Kusum Dalal,Prachi Chaudhary,Dr. Pawan Dahiya
Abstract
This paper presents a comparative test of two protocols namely-AODV and ADV in various mobility scenarios of Vehicular Ad-hoc NETworks (VANETs). In order to make comparison three performance criterions are selected which include number of packet drop, throughput and total time taken by NCTUns-6.0 to simulate the given network. To carry out the simulation process an open source simulator tool is used for this study namely-NCTUns-6.0. Based on the simulation results of both aforementioned protocols, the performance comparison is made and appropriate protocol is selected for individual scenarios. The mobility scenarios selected are broadly categorized as highway and city scenarios with different mobility patterns.
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10
Defect Prevention Technique in Test Case of Software Process for Quality Improvement
-Abhiraja Sharma,Naveen Hemrajani,Savita Shiwani,Ruchi Dhawe
Abstract
A test case in software engineering is a set of conditions or variables under which a tester will determine whether an application or software system is working correctly or not. The mechanism for determining whether a software program or system has passed or failed such a test is known as a test oracle.
Defect prevention is the most vital but habitually neglected facet of software quality assurance in any project. If functional at all stages of software development, it can condense the time, overheads and wherewithal entailed to engineer a high quality product. The key challenge of an IT industry is to engineer a software product with minimum post deployment defects
This paper will focus on finding the total number of defects if the test case shows that the software process not working properly. That has occurred in the software development process. For three similar projects and aims at classifying various defects using first level of Orthogonal Defect Classification (ODC), finding base causes of the defects and uses the learning of the projects as preventive ideas. The paper also showcases on how the preventive ideas are implemented in a new set of projects resulting in the reduction of the number of similar
1. KEYWORDS:Test case, Defect, Defect Analysis, Defect Prevention, Root Cause Analysis
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11
Information Retrieval through Multi-Agent System with Data Mining in Cloud Computing
-Vishal Jain,Mahesh Kumar Madan
Abstract
Problem solving solutions like Multi-Agent System (MAS) capitalizes on its multiple intelligent agents to receive precepts from the environment, process the information and produce the desired result for the environment. The wide scope of capabilities of an MAS permits the user to resolve functional, methodic, algorithmic or procedural query to explore and process the data. MAS are also referred as autonomous agents having the capability to resolve problems that are not possible for a single agent to handle.
The aim of this research paper is to develop a practically implemented research model for the information retrieval using Multi-Agent System with Data Mining technique in a Cloud Computing environment. The paper will undertake a review of the existing literature available on this arena and develop an empirical model showing real time data flow through MAS with data mining after retrieval of meaningful information from data warehouse present in a cloud computing environment. In the end, paper will provide recommendations for the organizations for effective implementation and use.
Keywords: Information Retrieval, Multi-Agent System, Data Mining, Cloud Computing
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12
The Application of Wireless Sensor Network in the Irrigation Area Automatic System
-B.Sivakumar,P.GunaSekaran,T.SelvaPrabhu,P.Kumaran,D.Anandan
Abstract
In the irrigation area automatic system, high- performance embedded micro-controller and low-power technology is used to design the water wireless sensor network. The sensor node gathers the hydrographic information such as water-level, gate position and rainfall. The sink node receives the real-time data; the information center stores and processes those data which are transmitted from the sink node through the GPRS network. The system replaces the wired transmission with the wireless transmission, which reduces the costs in installment and maintenance, and improves the system’s reliability and extension. It has better application prospect.
Keywords—Wireless sensor network; Irrigation area; GPRS; Sensor node; Sink node
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13
Texture Image Classification Using Support Vector Machine
-Mr.S.R.Suralkar,A.H.Karode,Priti W.Pawade
Abstract
Texture refers to properties that represent the surface or structure of an object and is defined as something consisting of mutually related elements. The main focus in this study is to do texture segmentation and classification for texture images. Statistical features can be calculated based on the grey level co-occurrence probabilities (GLCP) generated. The statistical features used in this study are uniformity, contrast, and entropy. The features are obtained by using a combination of different angles. For noise reduction, an appropriate moving average is applied to the statistical features. To post-process the image, support vector machines (SVM) had been proposed to do classification on the extracted features. Some kernel functions which are being tested are second degree polynomial, radial basis function (RBF), exponential radial basis function (ERBF), sigmoid, and odd-order Bspline. RBF and ERBF achieved the best classification accuracy compare to other kernels used. SVM also automatically helps RBF kernel to define the centres during optimization. Brodatz texture album is used in this study to test out the result. In the study, a combined GLCP with SVM post-processing showed a marked improvement over other classifier in terms of classification accuracy.
Keywords: Support Vector Machines, Grey Level Co-occurrence Probabilities, Image segmentation, Texture Classification
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14
Lossless Hoffman Coding Technique For Image Compression and Reconstruction using Binary Trees
-Mridul Kumar Mathur,Seema Loonker,Dr. Dheeraj Saxena
Abstract
A picture is worth more than thousand words “is a common saying. What a image can communicate can not be expressed through words. Images play an indispensable role in representing vital information and needs to be saved for further use or can be transmitted over a medium. In order to have efficient utilization of disk space and transmission rate, images need to be compressed. Image compression is the technique of reducing the file size of a image without compromising with the image quality at a acceptable level. This reduction in file size saves disk/.memory space and allows faster transmission of images over a medium. Image compression is been used from a long time and many algorithms have been devised. In this paper we have converted an image into an array using Delphi image control tool. Image control can be used to display a graphical image - Icon (ICO), Bitmap (BMP), Metafile (WMF), GIF, JPEG, etc, then an algorithm is created in Delphi to implement Huffman coding method that removes redundant codes from the image and compresses a BMP image file (especially grayscale image) and it is successfully reconstructed. This reconstructed image is an exact representation of the original because it is lossless compression technique. This Program can also be applied on other kind of RGB images (BMP, JPEF, Gif, and tiff) but it gives some color quality loss after reconstruction .Compression ratio for grayscale image is better as compared to other standard methods.
Keywords:-Huffman, JPEG, GIF, BMP, compression, loss
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15
Face Representation And Recognition Using Two-Dimensional PCA
-K.Shilpa,Syed Musthak Ahmed,A.VenkataRamana
Abstract
In this paper, two-dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA) is used for image representation and recognition. Compared to 1D PCA, 2DPCA is based on 2D image matrices rather than 1D vectors so the image matrix does not need to be transformed into a vector prior to feature extraction. Instead, an image covariance matrix is constructed directly using the original image matrices, and its eigenvectors are derived for image feature extraction. In order to test the approach, we have used ORL face database images. The recognition rate across all trials was higher using 2DPCA than PCA. The experimental results shows that this approach of extraction of image features is computationally more efficient using 2DPCA than PCA. It is also observed from the results that the recognition rate is high.
Index Terms—Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Eigenfaces, feature extraction, image representation, face recognition.
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16
Node Selection Based Broadcast in Manets to Improve the Efficiency
-Anchal Garg,Mohit Garg
Abstract
In this paper, the issue of broadcasting in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) is considered. A node equipped with directional antenna can divide the Omni directional transmission range into several sectors and turn some of them “on” for transmission. In the proposed scheme using a directional antenna, forwarding nodes selected locally need to transmit broadcast messages, only to the restricted sectors, allowing for increased performance on transmit and receive and interference from unwanted sources. The directional antenna usage is combined with network coding based broadcasting. With the help of network coding each forwarding node combine some of the messages it receives before transmission thereby reducing the number of transmissions each forwarding node performs in the message broadcast application.
Keywords: Broadcasting, Directional antenna, Network Coding, Adhoc networks.
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17
A Study of Knowledge Mining in Web Based Learning Environment
- A.Nithya Rani,Dr. Antony Selvdoss Davamani
Abstract
For the past several years data mining fields has been rapidly increasing and attract many researchers and users. This reason for such rapid growth is essential need to derive the useful knowledge automatically from volume of data which is accumulated and shared worldwide. From that storage education, a web based learning environment may develop to offer a practical tool for instructors and learners to use the knowledge for teaching and learning. Web based open and dynamic learning environment to be personalized support for learners. In this paper we give a study of knowledge mining in web based learning environments
Keywords-component; formatting; style; styling; insert
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18
Security Enhancement in Dynamic Telecast Routing
-Dr. GVN Prasad,M.Senthilkumar
Abstract
Wireless network has no stationary infrastructure. It provides several advantages such as fast and easydeployment, little or no reliance on a pre-existing infrastructure and cost-effectiveness. One of the major issues for data communication over wired and wireless networks is security .Different from the past work on the designs of network security algorithms and system infrastructures, we will propose a dynamic telecast routing algorithmthat could randomize delivery paths for data transmission. The algorithm is easy to implement and compatible with popular routing protocols, such as the Routing Information Protocol in wired networks and Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector protocol in wirelessnetworks , without introducing extra control messages. The simulation results have been verified from the proposed algorithm and it shows the capability of the proposed algorithm.
Keywords: Security-enhanced data broadcasting, dynamic telecast routing, RIP, DSDV
94-101

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19
An Efficient Search Algorithm in Decentralized Peer-to-Peer Networks
-N.Ranjeeth Kumar,N.Deepika
Abstract
To Design efficient search algorithms is a key challenge in decentralized peer-to-peer networks. Flooding and random walk (RW) are two previous search algorithms. Flooding searches aggressively and covers the most nodes. However, it generates a large amount of query messages and, thus, does not scale. On the contrary, RW searches conservatively. It only generates a fixed amount of query messages at each hop but would take longer search time .The proposed algorithm, which is generalization of flooding and RW. It takes advantage of various contexts under which each previous search algorithm performs well. It resembles flooding for short-term search and RW for long-term search. Moreover, it could be further combined with knowledge-based search mechanisms to improve the search performance. We analyze the performance of the search algorithm based on some performance metrics including the success rate, search time, query hits, query messages, query efficiency, and search efficiency.
Keywords:—Peer-to-peer, performance analysis, search algorithm.
102-106

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20
A MAC Technique for VoIP Services Using Back off Algorithm in IEEE 802.11e Networks
-K. Sumalatha, Dr. Ramakrishna Rao T. K
Abstract
In the advent of emerging information super highway, voice over Internet Protocol has become a vital service with the demand for high quality of requirements in Wireless Local Area Network(WLANs). The IEEE 802.11e Standard has been recently introduced to mark the Quality of Service (QoS) competence in the ever evolving wireless local area networks. This 802.11e brings contention window, based on Enhanced Distribution Channel Access technique that offers a selected traffic to ensure least bandwidth required for the time specific applications. The EDCA technique resets statistically the contention window of the mobile station after each successful transmission. The static behavior of EDCA does not adapt to the network state hence reduces the network usage which also results in bad performance and reduced link utilization whenever the demand arise for a link utilization increases. In IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs), network nodes experiencing collisions on the shared channel need to backoff for a random period of time and the Contention Window (CW) is dynamically controlled by the Back off algorithm. The initial step is to design an efficient back off algorithm for wireless ad hoc network is analysis of the existing back off algorithms in wireless ad hoc networks. In this paper, we have considered two important wireless ad-hoc network scenarios: (i) Node Mobility state (ii) Transmission Range state and evaluate both on the impact of mobility i.e. node speed and the impact of transmission range of nodes on the performance. In this paper the performance of the proposed technique and proposed traffic is evaluated and is compared with the original IEEE802.11a technique. The results obtained exhibits that the proposed adaptive technique increases the channel utilization along with the boosted throughput, as well as providing QOS requirements in terms of packet delay, packet drop rate, jitter, packet loss rate.
Keywords:, MAC, HCCA, EDCA, DCF, WLANs.
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