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IJCTA-Volume 3 Issue 4/ July-August 2012
S.No
Title/Author Name
Page No
1
Simulation and Analysis of Reciever-Receiver Time Synchronization in Wireless Sensor Networks
-Shashank Bholane, Devendrasingh Thakore
Abstract
Wireless sensor networks were initially deployed for military applications. Gradually researchers found them to be very useful in applications like weather monitoring, target tracking, agriculture, industrial applications, and recently smart homes and kindergartens. All the WSN applications need partial or full time synchronization. Applications like acoustic ranging, target tracking or monitoring need a common notion of time. Every data is time stamped sensor nodes local clock. Two main approaches to time synchronization are receiver-receiver synchronization and sender-receiver synchronization. In this paper we analyze the receiver-receiver synchronization and discuss the results of simulation in network simulator. This study, design considerations and simulation methodology will help a lot to the designer for designing a time synchronization scheme or system.
Keywords: Time synchronization, wireless sensor networks, protocol, receiver-receiver synchronization.
1320-1326


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2
Improved Diffie-Hellman Algorithm for Network Security Enhancement
-Vishal Garg, Rishu
Abstract
Communication is the important part in any type of network for making it possible to transfer data from one node to another. Communication needs quality and security for better performance and for acceptance of users and client companies. Quality is dependent on size and some other factors of network but security is very concern parameter in network as it is independent of network size and complexity. Security has become more important to personal computer users, organizations, and the military. Security became a major concern with the advent of internet and the history of security allows a better understanding of the emergence of security technology. The internet structure itself allowed for many security threats to occur. The modified architecture of the internet can reduce the possible attacks that can be sent across the network. Knowing the attack methods, allows for the appropriate security to emerge. Data integrity is quite a issue in security and to maintain that integrity we tends to improve as to provides the better encryption processes for security. In our proposed work we provide harder encryption with enhanced public key encryption protocol for security and proposed work can be implemented into any network to provide better security. We have enhanced the hardness in security by improving the Diffie-Hellman encryption algorithm by adding some more security codes in current algorithm.
Keywords--- Diffie-Hellman, Private Key, Public Key, Cipher.
1327-1331

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3
Terminology-Based Approach: Knowledge Acquisition and Integration in Healthcare
-Subiksha.K.P,K.Alagarsamy
Abstract
Healthcare organizations are increasingly choosing the Knowledge Management Systems for clinical use, which have been established in technical support organizations for several years. Technical support organization can make use of its Knowledge Management System to meets its customer needs using its infrastructure and established processes. Success of Knowledge Management System in a healthcare organization mainly depends on the practice of healthcare professionals. Knowledge acquisition is very vital in healthcare than the application in technical support. The aim is to provide efficient access to heterogeneous biological textual data and databases, enabling users to integrate a wide range of textual and non-textual resources effortlessly. The main objective of the system is to make easier knowledge acquisition through query answering against XML-based documents in Healthcare specifically in the domain of molecular biology.
Keywords:Healthcare, Knowledge Acquisition, Terminology based
1332-1334


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4
Advance Source Coding Techniquesfor Audio/Speech Signal: A Survey
-Sheetal D. Gunjal,Dr. Rajeshree D. Raut
Abstract
Speech & Audio coding is widely used in application such as digital broad casting, Internet audio or music database to reduce the bit rate of high quality audio signal without comprising the perceptual value. Techniques have also been emerging in recent years that offers enhanced quality bit rate over traditional methods. Wideband audio compression is generally aimed at a quality that is nearly indistinguishable from consumer compact-disc audio. Sub band & transform coding methods contained with sophisticated perceptual coding techniques dominate in this area with good quality bit rates.
Keywords:Bit rate, Compression, LPC, Fast Fourier Transform, .Wavelet Transform.
1335-1342

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5
Grid Computing for Different Applications
-Sanjeev Narayan Bal
Abstract
Grid Computing delivers on the potential in the growth and abundance of network connected systems and bandwidth: computation, collaboration and communication over the Advanced Web. At the heart of Grid Computing is a computing infrastructure that provides dependable, consistent, pervasive and inexpensive access to computational capabilities. The use of grid computing in the context of e-learning shows, what advantages a utilization of grid computing may have to offer and which applications could benefit from it. In capturing knowledge and heuristics about how to select application components and computing resources, and using that knowledge to generate automatically executable job workflows for the Grid. Scientists and engineers are building more and more complex applications to manage and process large data sets, and execute scientific experiments on distributed resources. Such application scenarios require means for composing and executing complex workflows. Therefore,many efforts have been made towards the development of workflow management systems for Grid computing.
1343-1348

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6
Comparative Analysis of Proposed POBBx-Index Structure
-K. Appathurai, Dr. S. Karthikeyan
Abstract
In this paper the proposed work is compared with the existing index methods like BBxindex and OBBx index structure. This paper proposes the new index structure called POBBx (Parameterized Optimal BBx) which indexes the positions of moving objects, given as linear functions of time, at any time. The index supports queries that select objects based on temporal and spatial constraints, such as queries that retrieve all objects whose positions fall within a spatial range during a set of time intervals. The proposed work reduces lot of searching efforts done by the existing methods and minimized time complexity. The simulation results shows that the proposed algorithm provides better performance than BBxindex and OBBx index structure.
Keywords: Moving Objects, POBBx index, BBx-trees, OBBx index and Migration.
1349-1356

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7
SVM Based Navigation Patterns for Efficient Relevance Feedback in Content Based Image Retrieval
-Vaishali Meshram,Prof. Nishchol Mishra,Prof. Sanjeev Sharma
Abstract
Image retrieval based on image content has become a hot topic in the field of image processing and computer vision. Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) is the basis of image retrieval systems. Unlike traditional database queries, content-based multimedia retrieval queries are imprecise in nature which makes it difficult for users to express their exact information need in the form of a precise right query. To be more profitable, relevance feedback techniques were incorporated into CBIR such that more precise results can be obtained by taking user’s feedbacks into account. However, existing relevance feedback based CBIR methods usually request a number of iterative feedbacks to produce refined search results, especially in a large-scale image database. This is impractical and inefficient in real applications. This paper studies about the research on ways to extend and improve query methods for image databases is widespread, we have developed the QBIC (Query by Image Content) system to explore content-based retrieval methods. To achieve the high efficiency and effectiveness of CBIR we are using two type of methods for feature extraction like SVM (support vector machine)and NPRF(navigation-pattern based relevance feedback). By using SVM classifier as a category predictor of query and database images, they are exploited at first to filter out irrelevant images by its different low-level, concept and key point-based features. Thus we may reduce the size of query search in the data base then we may apply NPRF algorithm and refinement strategies for further extraction. In terms of efficiency, the iterations of feedback are reduced by using the navigation patterns discovered from the user query log. In terms of effectiveness, the proposed search algorithm NPRF Search makes use of the discovered navigation patterns and three kinds of query refinement strategies, Query Point Movement (QPM), Query Reweighting (QR), and Query Expansion (QEX), to converge the search space toward the user’s intention effectively. By using NPRF method, high quality of image retrieval on RF can be achieved in a small number of feedbacks.
Keywords:Content-based image retrieval, relevance feedback, query point movement, query expansion, navigation pattern mining, SVM.
1357-1364


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8
Multimedia and Hypermedia: Communication Issues in Open Document Environment
-R. N. Jugele,V. N. Chavan
Abstract
Hypertext allows data model structure to be tailored according to each one’s necessities through the creation of arbitrary links that associate different data content pieces. Multimedia allows the incorporation of a diversity of media types together with text but requires specifications of how data has to be exhibited to the user, considering not only man-machine interfaces but also temporal and spatial synchronization. It is also necessary to specify how interaction should be performed between user and system services.
we have presented design of a communication plateform based on measurement of performance and communication load, reusability and flexibility are taken into account. The communication plateform suits well the domain of high performance streaming multimedia applications.
Keywords:Hypertext, image, voice, retrieval, linking, interface, efficiency, integration, object oriented, synchronization, synthesizing.
1365-1371


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9
Method Designing for Multimedia and Hypermedia Application
-R. N. Jugele,Dr. V. N. Chavan
Abstract
Method is a multifaceted activity. Multimedia information technology has become popular, conventional database system do not offer adequate support for method, modeling, indexing and manipulation of multimedia data. Here we present details of its implementation and discuss the conclusions.
Keywords:Multimedia, real-time, object, script, level, virtual room, MHEG, method, Multimedia information object, style, pairs
1372-1377

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10
Agile Plus – Comprehensive model for Software Development
-Amit Juyal, Umesh Kumar Tiwari, Lata Nautiyal Shashidhar, G. Koolagudi
Abstract
In today’s changing environment the main priority of a customer is software that executes 100% requirements of customer. In addition there should be some scope so that existing software must adopt future requirements too, that is, it should be flexible enough that can accommodate future requirements, within budget and timely delivered. Traditional Agile models seem flexible but practically it’s hard to achieve their documented guidelines. Here in this paper I am are proposing a new, flexible, and customer-oriented Agile based model, Agile Plus Plus, which includes the capability of traditional Agile models as well as methods to provide fast and instant deliverable. I am also explaining types of requirements of the client or of end user.
Keywords:Agile, Agile Plus Plus, Traditional Software Model
1378-1383

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11
A noval Approach of LSB Steganography for Retreiving text from Audio
-Manju Pandey,Dr. Nilay Khare,Dr. S.C. Shrivastava
Abstract
A novel LSB steganographic method of embedding textual information in an audio file. In the proposed technique, first the audio file is sampled and then an appropriate bit of each alternate sample is altered to embed the textual information. In this approach the perceptual quality of the host audio signal was not to be degraded. RSA Secret keys are used for secure transmission of data. Signal-to-noise ratio a standard measure of the amount of background noise present in a speech signal is calculated.
Keywords Steganography, Human Auditory System (HAS), Cover object, Covert data, Stego-object, Embed, RSA, Signal-to-noise ratio, Extraction.
1384-1387

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12
Power-Area trade-off for Different CMOS Design Technologies
-Priyadarshini.V,Prof.G.R.L.V.N.Srinivasa Raju
Abstract
With the advancement of technology, Integrated Chip (IC) has achieved smaller chip size with more functions integrated. Through the usage of more transistors, it has lead to an increase of power dissipation and undesired noise. As the design gets more complex, this results in slower speed. Hence, the demand for low power, fast speed is desired. In this paper an adder and logic circuits are designed in three different CMOS technology structures like complementary logic, ratio logic and dynamic logic. They all have a similar function, but the way of producing the intermediate nodes and the transistor count is different. The main objective of this paper is comparison of static CMOS adder, ratio logic adder and clocked cascade voltage switch logic adder (also known as dual rail domino) in terms of power dissipation and area. The designs are implemented on 45nm process models in tanner tools v13.0 s-Edit composer and simulations are carried out in T-Spice.
Keywords- Static CMOS, Dual-Rail Domino, DDCVSL, Ratio Logic, adder, low power, area.
1388-1394

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13
Performance of AODV against Black Hole Attacks in Mobile ad-hoc Networks
-Sushil kumar Chamoli,Santosh kumar,Deepak Singh Rana
Abstract
Wireless mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a self-configuring network which is composed of several movable mobile nodes. These mobile nodes communicate with each other without any infrastructure. As wireless ad-hoc networks lack an infrastructure, they are exposed to a lot of attacks. One of these attacks is the Black Hole attack. In Black Hole attack, a malicious node falsely advertises shortest path to the destination node and absorbs all data packets in it. In this way, all packets in the network are dropped. In this paper, performance of AODV is evaluated in presence of black hole attack (malicious node) and without black hole attack with cbr traffic under different scalable network mobility. For this analysis RWP model is used.
Keywords: MANET, AODV, Black Hole attack, malicious node, PDR.
1395-1399


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14
A Surbey on Cloud Computing Architecture
-Rajpal Choudhary
Abstract
Cloud computing is Internet-based computing, whereby shared resources, software and information are provided to computers and other devices on demand. Users don‘t need expertise in or control over the technology infrastructure "in the cloud". Typical cloud computing providers deliver common business applications online that are accessed from another Web service or software like a Web browser, while the software and data are stored on servers. The two most significant components of cloud computing architecture are front end and back end. The front end is the part seen by the client, i.e. the computer user. This includes the client‘s or computer and the applications used to access the cloud via a user interface such as a web browser. The backend of the cloud computing architecture is the ‗cloud‘ itself, comprising various computers, servers and data storage devices. A key element of cloud computing is customization and creation of a user-defined experience.
Keywords: Cloud Infrastructure, deployment models, cloud architecture.
1400-1405

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15
Optimizing and Enhancing Parallel Multi Storage Backup Compression for real Time Database Systems
-M. Muthukumar,Dr.T.Ravichandran
Abstract
One of the big challenges in the world was the amount of data being stored, especially in Data Warehouses. Data stored in databases keep growing as a result of businesses requirements for more information. A big portion of the cost of keeping large amounts of data is in the cost of disk systems, and the resources utilized in managing the data. Backup Compression field in the database systems has tremendously revolutionized in the past few decades. Most existing work presented attribute-level compression methods but the main contribution of such work had been on the numerical attributes compression alone, in which it employed to reduce the length of integers, dates and floating point numbers. Nevertheless, the existing work has not evolved the process of compressing string-valued attributes. To improve the existing work issues, in this work, we study how to construct compressed database systems that provides better in performance than traditional techniques and to store the database backups to multiple storages.
The compression of database systems for real time environment is developed with our proposed Hierarchical Iterative Row-Attribute Compression (HIRAC) algorithm, provides good compression, while allowing access even at attribute level. HIRAC algorithm repeatedly increases the compression ratio at each scan of the database systems. The quantity of compression can be computed based on the number of iterations on the rows. After compressing the real time database systems, it allows database backups to be stored at multiple devices in parallel. Extensive experiments were conducted to estimate the performance of the proposed parallel multi-storage backup compression (PMBC) using HIRAC algorithm with respect to previously known tehniques, such as attribute-level compression methods.
Keywords: Backup Compression, Parallel Multistorage, Large Database, Compression Techniques
1406-1417


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16
A Strategy for Package Transformation for LINUX Environment
-Smita Parte
Abstract
A Linux operating system is composed of a large number of software packages. Among packages there exist a variety of complex dependency relations, and their management is the foundation of building and maintaining Linux operating system. And the premise of the management is the dependency relations’ extraction. Based on the analysis of several different formats of Linux software packages, a unified format for package metadata, which is mainly dependency management oriented, is defined in this paper. Moreover package metadata extraction methods for different package formats, including the RPM and DEB packages, are given. And the corresponding supporting tool is implemented, which lays the groundwork for Linux package dependency modelling and integrity check.
Keywords-Linux system, Metadata, Package dependency, Unified Package Metadata.
1418-1421

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17
Emerging Trends in Quantum Cryptography – A Survey
-Vivek.R, Dr.J.Roopchand
Abstract
Privacy is paramount when communicating sensitive information in today’s increasingly networked world. Both the business and government sectors have ever-more demanding secure communication needs. Conventional information assurance methods face increasing technological challenges and future threats, including unanticipated advances in mathematics, high-performance computing, and the possibility of large-scale quantum computation. Quantum cryptography is an emerging technology in the field of cryptographic systems where quantum mechanics is used to guarantee secure communication between two parties. This paper discusses the limitations of conventional cryptography and some recent advancement in Quantum Cryptography.
1422-1425

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18
An Overview of Speech Recognition and Speech Synthesis Algorithms
-Dr.E.Chandra, A.Akila
Abstract
This paper describes about some speech synthesis and speech recognition algorithms and compares their performance based on accuracy and quality. In speech recognition DTW and HMM algorithms are compared with respect to accuracy. Comparative study of CELP and MBROLA algorithm of speech synthesis based on quality is also done.
Keywords: DTW, HMM, CELP, MBROLA, Quality and Accuracy.
1426-1430

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19
Analysis of Relay Stations in WiMAX Networks
-Khan Mubeen Ahmed, Karada Om Prakash
Abstract
The demand for broadband services is growing IEEE sharply today. The traditional solutions to provide high speed broadband access is to use wired access technologies such as cable modem, digital subscriber line(DSL), Ethernet and fiber optics. It is too difficult and expensive for carriers to build and maintain wired networks. Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) is flexible, efficient, and cost effective solution to overcome the problems. Relay station acting a capable role of extending the range of Base station for long distances in WiMAX networks. Relay station is appropriate to areas with partial infrastructure such as rural, mountainous and lakes, where it is hard to install many Base stations with each having wired connections and it is also suitable to those areas where obstacles made the coverage limited. In this paper the performance analysis of Relay stations has been done in WIMAX networks. This paper focuses on increasing number of relay stations to the performance of WiMAX networks.
Keywords: 802.16, Light WiMAX Simulator (LWX), Bandwidth Allocation Algorithm (BWA), Relay Station
1431-1434

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20
Implementation of New Cell Site in Telecom Sector
-Amita Sharma,Monish Gupta
Abstract
This paper revaluates the basic requirements for the installation and implementation of new cell site in telecom sector and will discuss the impact of various physical and environmental conditions on the installation process.
Keywords: Cell site, GSM, Multiplexer, base station subsystem
1435-1438

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