......

..

IJCTA-Volume 3 Issue 6/ November-December 2012
S.No
Title/Author Name
Page No
1
Energy-Efficient Reliable Routing in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks
-Prof. Jayashree A,Rashmi A Patil
Abstract
Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSN) can handle different traffic classes of multimedia content (video, audio streams and still images) as well as scalar data over the network. Use of general and efficient routing protocols for WMSN is of crucial significance. Similar to other traditional networks, in WMSN a noticeable proportion of energy is consumed due to communications. Many routing protocols have been proposed for WMSN. The design of more efficient protocols in terms of energy awareness, video packet scheduling and QoS in terms of checkpoint arrangement still remains a challenge. This paper proposes the actuation of sensor on demand basis and routing protocol based on cost function which efficiently utilizes the network resources such as the intermediate nodes energy and load. Cost function is introduced to improve the route selection and control congestion. Simulation results, using the NS-2 simulator show that the proposed protocol prolongs the network lifetime, increase the reliability and decrease the network load.
Keywords— WMSN, Energy efficiency, Reliability, Qos, Video packet scheduling.
1870-1874

  PDF

2
A Morphological Approach to Remove Salt in Pepper Noise in Images
-Aravinth Chinnapalanichamy,Arjun Dev Singh R,Ajith.K.N
Abstract
In this paper, a morphological approach based on pixel connectivity is proposed for removing impulse noise in images. Impulse noise, also called the salt and pepper noise, usually occurs in dark and bright regions of the image and the presence of this noise degrades the visual quality of the image by affecting its texture and fine details. Our algorithm first identifies the noisy pixels in image based on 4-connectivity between the processing pixel and adjacent noisy pixels in a chosen window. Based on the region on which the processing is being done, the identified noise is removed and a median filter of varying mask size is used for estimating the correct value. The proposed method is found to be effective in dealing with high density impulse noise and further all the fine details and texture of the image is preserved.
Keywords:Morphology, Connectivity, Impulse noise, Median filter, Mask.
1875-1880

  PDF

3
Quasi Active Power Factor Correction with AC-DC Converter
-G.Murali Krishna,A.Suryanarayana Babu,S.Manoj Snadeep
Abstract
This paper presents a novel ac/dc converter based on a quasi-active power factor correction(PFC) scheme. The proposed ac-dc converter with power factor correction circuit combines power conversion characteristics of conventional fly back and boost converters. In The proposed circuit the auxiliary output of the main converter is connected between the rectified ac mains and the low-frequency filter capacitor. High frequency pulsating source is produced due to auxiliary winding. This is used for shaping the input current by lengthening the input current conduction angle. The power factor correction circuit is controlled by using PI controller. The single stage circuit has low total harmonic distortion (THD) of input current. It does not increase the voltage/current stress on the active switch used in the switching Converter due to PFC. Operating principle and simulation results of the proposed method are presented by using MATLAB simulink software.
1881-1885

  PDF

4
An Experimental Study on Optimized Link State Routing Protocol for Underground Mines
-C.Jeyalakshmi,Dr.R.Sukumar
Abstract
In this paper, we investigate the benefits of Optimized Link State Routing Protocol used for communication in underground mines. Due to network failures, node and link failures in the past few years an explosive growth in the use of wireless routing protocols for communication needs in the underground environment. Most studies indicate that it is impossible for reliable routing under ground level. In this paper, we compare the analysis of the OLSR (Optimized Link State Routing) Protocol and OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) protocol. The performance results shows that OLSR protocol work efficiently since the protocol runs in wireless multi-hop scenarios the message flooding in OLSR is optimized to preserve bandwidth. Furthermore, OLSR routing can significantly reduce overheads caused by link-state flooding using two techniques MPRs (Multipoint Relays) and Link-state Reduction.
Index Terms — routing, underground, OLSR, OSPF, Performance analysis, multi-hop, flooding, optimization, link-state, Multi Point Relays.
1886-1893


  PDF

5
Construction of Power Efficient Fault Tolerant Wireless Network Using Cone Based Algorithm
-P.Chitra, K.Tamilarasi, C.Suganthini
Abstract
Fault tolerant topology control for all to one communication holds significance in dynamic wireless networks with asymmetric wireless links. In this paper the author Investigates the various aspects of the problem mentioned above using the cone based distributed topology control algorithm. The topology of a wireless multi-hop network can be controlled by varying the transmission power at each node. If there is a path between receiver base station and the node then it will communicate with the maximum power. The author proposes a set of optimizations. It reduces power consumption and that they retain network connectivity. Dynamic configuration in the presence of failures and mobility of nodes are analyzed. In the proposed system, topology control algorithm controls the connectivity of node to the base station which is maintained during dynamic location of the nodes using Gaussian Distribution. Network Simulator is used to simulate for the connectivity of node and receiver base station. The fault tolerant topology control helps to retain the node within the network .
Index Terms - Wireless networks, topology control, fault tolerant
1894-1898


  PDF

6
An Advanced Approach for Removal of Salt and Pepper Noise in Highly Corrupted Colour Images
-Guntha Karthik,Dr.A.Venkata Ramana
Abstract
In this paper we presented an approach for removal of high density salt and pepper noise in colour images. The algorithms available in the literature so far was discuss about the removal and pepper noise in gray scale images only. Hence we implemented this concept for colour images. Because now a days the images which are using real time applications mostly colour images. If the grayscale image is converted to RGB image we got same output can be obtained. But it does not remove the total noise and it is neither sufficient and nor efficient and also time taking process. The simulation results carried out by considering colour images using the approach presented in this paper. From is observed that more noise less image is obtained as like in adaptive weight algorithm for gray scale images from highly corrupted image. High quality imaging are needed for analyzing images unique events, and in forensic science where potentially useful for photographic evidence is something extremely bad quality and also in remote sensing.
Keywords: RGB Image, median filter; DIP; weighted median filtering; heavily corrupted colour image.
1899-1902


  PDF

7
Measuring the Effectiveness of Test Cases in to Java Program by Mutation Testing Tool
-Mukesh Kumari,Sudesh Jakhar,Mandeep Singh
Abstract
Software Testing is a process of executing software in a controlled manner, in order to answer the question-does the software behave as specified? Testing process mostly used to execute with intention to find the bugs as well as it also examines the functions and performance behaviour of a program. Mutation analysis (testing)is a fault-based technique for determining the adequacy of test suite in terms of its test effectiveness. In this paper, we implement a tool or test case for java program by using the Mutation Testing. To check the effectiveness of test case we designed many mutant programs.
Keywords:Testing, Mutation testing, Test cases, Java operators, Killed mutant, alive mutant.
1903-1907


  PDF

8
Practical Queue Algorithm & Stochastic Framework Algorithm for Homogeneous Network Load Allocation
-S.Praveen Kumar,Chaitanya Kasturi,Pitta Manohar Reddy,Sure RaviTeja,
T Kodanda Ram Reddy
Abstract
This paper explores the virtual queue algorithm in the context of distributed congestion control for packet networks. Queueing models and simulation experiment are used to describe the behavior of the virtual queue algorithm under both slowly-varying and sudden changes in traffic demands. Here, we consider about the rate control problem with the objective of maximizing the total user utility. It takes into account the possible differences in user requirements, and also provides a framework for achieving a wide range of fairness objectives. In multi rate multicasting, different users within the same multicast group could receive service at different rates, depending on user requirements and network congestion level. Compared to unirate multicasting, this provides more flexibility to the user, and allows more efficient usage of network resources. In this paper, we address the rate control problem for multirate multicast sessions, with the objective of maximizing the total receiver utility. This aggregate utility maximization problem not only takes into account the heterogeneity in user requirements, but also provides a unified framework for diverse fairness objectives. The algorithm requires very simple computations both for the user and the network, and also has very low overhead of network congestion feedback.
Keywords: Capacity provisioning, congestion control, inelastic flow, network control by pricing, network utility maximization, optimization, resource allocation.
1908-1914



  PDF

9
Secure Data Transmission in MANET Routing Protocol
-Kartik Kumar Srivastava,Avinash Tripathi,Anjnesh Kumar Tiwari
Abstract
Information exchange in a network of mobile and wireless nodes without any infrastructure support such networks are called as adhoc networks. A Mobile adhoc network (MANET) is mobile, multi-hop, infrastructure less wireless network which is capable of autonomous operation. In this paper we have discussed some of the basic routing protocols in MANET like Destination Sequenced Distance Vector(DSDV), Dynamic Source Routing(DSR), Ad-hoc On Demand Distance Vector(AODV) and Zone Routing Protocol(ZRP).
Security is one of the biggest issue in MANETs as they are infrastructure-less and autonomous. Therefore, in manet networks with security needs, there must be two considerations kept in mind: one to make the routing protocol secure and second one to protect the data transmission. Our endeavour in this paper would focus on achieving the routing and secure information exchange. This will facilitate the user nodes to perform routing, mutual authentications, generation and secure exchange of session key. As a result of which ensuring confidentiality, integrity and authentication of data exchange in a more suitable and secured way.
Keywords - Adhoc network, key management, mobile adhoc network, routing protocol, security.
1915-1921

  PDF

10
Design and Development of Middleware Gateway IP Multimedia System and Web Services
-P Sashi Rekha,C Sreedhar
Abstract
Rapid growth in Internet (Web) applications and usage of mobile in telecommunication is present trends in communication. In Web 2.0 web services architecture is become versatile tool for enterprise solutions in distributed environment systems. To provide an enterprise solution it is not possible to get professional solution at one place. Hence we need to integrate different web services to provide an enterprise solution to meet the requirements. To integrate different web services Service Oriented Architecture is developed which uses SOAP Protocol.Web services provide a standard means of interoperating between different software applications, running on a variety of platforms and/or frameworks .A Web service is a software system designed to support interoperable machine-to-machine interaction over a network. It has an interface described in a machine-processable format (specifically WSDL). Other systems interact with the Web service in a manner prescribed by its description using SOAP messages, typically conveyed using HTTP with an XML serialization in conjunction with other Web-related standards. In mobile multimedia applications are used to transfer audio and video information using internet. To access internet on mobile signaling protocols are developed. Among those protocol stack session initiation protocol (SIP) is commonly used. To combine modern web features (Web Services) on to mobile phone interoperability problem is occurred, because mobile uses SIP messages and web services uses SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) messages to perform communication. It means a web service does not understand SIP messages and vice-versa. In this regard a necessity is identified to develop application level gateway to exchange the SIP/SOAP message interface.
1922-1928


  PDF

11
Comparative analysis of Online/Offline Gregg Shorthand Recognition using CANN and BP
-R.Rajasekaran,Dr.K.Ramar
Abstract
Gregg shorthand is a form of stenography that was invented by John Robert Gregg in 1888. Like cursive longhand, it is completely based on elliptical figures and lines that bisect them. Gregg shorthand is the most popular form of pen stenography in the United States and its Spanish adaptation is fairly popular in Latin America. With the invention of dictation machines, shorthand machines, and the practice of executives writing their own letters on their personal computers, the use of shorthand has gradually declined in the business and reporting world. However, Gregg shorthand is still in use today.
The need to process documents on paper by computer has led to an area of research that may be referred to as Document Image Understanding (DIU).The goal of DIU system is to convert a raster image representation of a document. For Example, A hand written Gregg shorthand character or word is converted into an appropriate Symbolic Character in a computer (It may be a scanned character or online written character).Thus it involves many disciplines of computer science including image processing, pattern recognition, natural language processing, artificial intelligence, neural networks and database system. The ultimate goal of this paper is to recognize hand written Gregg shorthand character and analyse it with CANN (Competitive Artificial Neural Network) and BP (Back Propagation) method.
1929-1938


  PDF

12
Reconizing Handwritten Numerals using Multilayer Feed Forward Back Propogation Neural Network
-P Pandi Selvi,Dr.T Meyyappan
Abstract
Image processing is simply the processing of the given image. The input is just an image, that may be from any source, and the output may be an image or a set of parameters that are related to that particular image. Recognition plays an important role in the area of image processing. In this research work, the authors focus on the recognition of handwritten digits. A new method that uses neural network is proposed for recognizing handwritten numerals. It consists of three phases namely preprocessing, training and recognition. Preprocessing stage performs noise removal, binarization, labeling, rescaling and segmentation operations. Training stage adopts backpropagation with feedforward technique. Recognition stage recognizes input images of numerals. The proposed method is implemented in Matlab. The method recognizes the numerals with accuracy in the range 95-100%. It performs well and maintain the accuracy level even in case of deformed images and images of any size.
Keywords:Multilayer feed-forward back propagation neural network, Gaussian filter, OTSU’s method, Bilinear interpolation method, Floyd-Warshall’s algorithm
1939-1944


  PDF

13
Prepare Datasets for Data Mining Analysis by using Horizontal Aggregation in SQL
-Ranjith Kumar K,Krishna Veni
Abstract
Existing SQL aggregations have limitations to prepare data sets because they return one column per aggregated group. In general, a significant manual effort is required to build data sets, where a horizontal layout is required. We propose simple, yet powerful, methods to generate SQL code to return aggregated columns in a horizontal tabular layout, returning a set of numbers instead of one number per row. This new class of functions is called horizontal aggregations. Horizontal aggregations build data sets with a horizontal denormalized layout (e.g. point-dimension, observation-variable, instance-feature), which is the standard layout required by most data mining algorithms. We propose three fundamental methods to evaluate horizontal aggregations: CASE: Exploiting the programming CASE construct; SPJ: Based on standard relational algebra operators (SPJ queries); PIVOT: Using the PIVOT operator, which is offered by some DBMSs. Experiments with large tables compare the proposed query evaluation methods. Our CASE method has similar speed to the PIVOT operator and it is much faster than the SPJ method. In general, the CASE and PIVOT methods exhibit linear scalability, whereas the SPJ method does not.
1945-1949


  PDF

14
Overview of Wi MAX Technology - Broadband Access to the Last Mile
-Vadaliya Savan Rameshbhai,Appana Manikanta Sitaram,A. Rama Krishna
Abstract
WiMAX is a wireless communications standard designed to provide 30 to 40 megabit-per-sec data rates, with the 2011 update providing up to 1 Gbit/s for fixed stations. WiMAX can provide at-home or mobile internet access across whole cities or countries. In many cases this has resulted in competition in markets which typically only had access through an existing incumbent DSL (or similar) operator. Additionally, given the relatively low costs associated with the deployment of a WiMAX network (in comparison with 3G, HSDPA, Xdsl, HFC or FTTx), it is now economically viable to provide last-mile broadband Internet access in remote locations. Mobile WiMAX was a replacement candidate for a cellular phone technologies such as GSM,CDMA, or can be used as an overlay to increase capacity. Fixed WiMAX is also considered as a wireless backhaul technology for 2G,3G and 4G networks in both developed and developing countries. In this paper we will discuss about the features, working and technology aspects of WiMAX.
Keywords: CPE (Customer Premises Equipment) DSL (Digital Subscriber Line), Multiple-Input Multiple-Output.(MIMO),OFDMA(Orthogonal Frequency Division MultipleAccess)
1950-1953

  PDF

15
Overview of CCS7 Signalling
-Kadali Mohan Swamy,V Savan Rameshbhai,A Rama Krishna
Abstract
The CCS 7 is a Common Channel signalling system. That is, instead of signalling being associated with each traffic channel, a common signalling channel is used for all circuits. This signalling in telecommunication network establishes and realizes temporary connections, in accordance with the instructions and information received from subscriber lines and inter- exchange trunks, in the form of various signals. Therefore, it is necessary to interchange information between subscriber lines and between different exchanges. Though these signals may differ widely in their implementation they are collectively known as telephone signals. In this paper we discuss about CCS7 system architecture, protocol stack, link congestion and performance.
Keywords: IN (Intelligent Network),MTP (Message Transfer Point), SCCP(Signalling Connection Control Part), TCAP (Transaction Capabilities Application Part)
1954-1958

  PDF

16
Analyzing Cognitive Skills through Data Mining
-Parneet kaur,Sheveta Vashisht
Abstract
This is theoretical modeling and algorithmic paper about cognitive processing of human brain by using data mining techniques. This paper discusses the challenges associated with cognitive processing of human brain using brain-computer interface. Brain computer interface uses knowledge of electroencephalography systems to deliver output from human brain regarding any situation. Data base is used to store all metadata and by using classification different classes are derived where information related to different aspect (emotional, educational etc) is stored. By using decision making models this information is indexed. From this dataset cognitive skills are evaluated by analyzing from which portion of database (brain) the output is retrieved and how strong or week is the cognitive skills.
Keywords: Data mining, data base, electroencephalography, cognitive skills, brain-computer interface.
1959-1962

  PDF

17
Analysis and Indentifying Variation in Human Emotion Through Data Mining
-Jasakaran Kaur,Sheveta Vashisht
Abstract
This paper explored to detect emotion variation in adolescent age group through data mining techniques. In this age mood swings is maximum as compared to other age group. Children become more moody and irritable during this period of their lives .This moodiness is commonly attributes to the sudden and fluctuating hormonal level, brain still developing, peer pressure, Cognitive immaturity . Some people get more hyper but others feel under the weather and just want to be left alone, but everyone is different, and it isn't always the same emotion change. During this age period the people around us will experience drastic changes in our moods. If you're out-of-control happy one minute, totally depressed the next minute, and furious the next, you're completely normal!. But mood swings can also be frightening and confusing. Proposed paper is based on collection of dataset from this large group of emotions in adolescent age by using data mining technique. By classifying emotions and using decision tree different emotional variations are analyzed in this paper. Outlier analysis is used to identify emotion variation in child having any kind of disability.
GeneralTerms:-emotion classification, adolescent age, classification decision tree, outlier analysis, data mining.
1963-1966


  PDF

18
Association Rule for Privacy Preserving in Data Mining
-Jayashree Patil,Y.C.Kulkarni
Abstract
Data mining is the computer oriented process to evaluate vast database and extract the meaning of the data. Privacy is inter-related with secrecy and anonymity. Thus privacy preserving in data mining means maintaining secrecy which is concerned with the information that the others can retrieve from us. Then the loss of privacy means leakage of that information. So to mine the information from huge database number of algorithms have developed that assures mining with privacy preserving. These algorithms are used to secure the sensitive items while extracting the appropriate knowledge from database. In this paper, the methodology used to preserve the privacy in data mining using association rule is used because association rule mining is one of the important aspect in data mining. In this algorithm, secure multiparty computation is used which assures security using cryptograpy is also discussed in brief. This algorithm ensures better privacy preserving with high efficiency.
1967-1970

  PDF

19
A Two layer Semi-Spervised Clustering Method for Text Retrieval
-Mohammad Darvishi Padook, Eghbal Mansoori, Reza Boostani
Abstract
Accurate clustering of text is a challenging problem among the information retrieval society. In some cases experts possesses prior knowledge about the data that can enhance the clustering performance. In this paper a two layer semi-supervised clustering method is proposed to improve the text clustering accuracy. The novel approach uses Space Level Constraints Clustering (SLCC) method as a first layer to categorize the data which novel the prior knowledge for the second layer. K-means clustering is an efficient method but the bottleneck of this algorithm is its sensitivity to the number of clusters and initial centers. K-means is employed as the second layer in the proposed structure and its drawbacks is solved by incorporating prior knowledge found by SLCC (in the first layer) such as number of partitions and their centers. Here Reuters-21578 dataset along with some standard sets from UCI repository are selected as a rich benchmark to evaluate our method. Therefore, accuracy of the clustering methods can be precisely determined. The combinatorial scheme is applied on a high dimensional reuters-21578 data and the clustering results lead to a higher accuracy compare to utilize just SLCC or K-means on the data set and also got high improvement on the other datasets.
Keywords: space level constraints clustering, K-means, text retrieval, semi-supervised clustering.
1971-1978

  PDF

20
Empirical Assessment of Factors Influencing Success of Collaborative Enterprise 2.0 Implementation Model of Manufacturing Industrial in Thailand
-Phuangphairot, N,Mekhabanchakij,K.
Abstract
This paper presents an empirical assessment of factors influencing success of collaborative Enterprise 2.0 implementation model of manufacturing industrial in Thailand. It focuses on assessment of factors influencing success from collaboration oriented model embedded Enterprise 2.0 which tends to have organization benefit with improved business performance. The implementation model used social integration mechanism of ERP, Activity Based Management (ABM) and Enterprise 2.0 technology tools. (social media for cross-functional, boundary spanning knowledge sharing, and communities of practice) With adapted the framework of Business Absorptive Capacity can do the realized transformation exploitation from potential acquisition assimilation in organization knowledge. This study develops a bottom up management approach for collaborative and effective deployment of Enterprise 2.0. The approach developed in this study deployed business performance management concepts in implementing enterprise systems which aims to improve each unit in production hourly efficiency performance and provide core management control system capability. Based on this approach, an experimental prototype model has been created and used in developing a real-life enterprise information system. This research is a study of an electronic industry in Thailand, which is in the form of a Collaborative Enterprise System Implementation Model. The finding has shown in the outcomes of business performance ratio improvement
1979-1985



  PDF

 
 
IJCTA © Copyrights 2010| All Rights Reserved.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 India License.