IJCTA-Volume 5 Issue 2/ March-April 2014
Title/Author Name
Page No
Modular Design for Smart Urban WSN Applications
-Marisa Gil,Beatriz Otero
Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are platforms increasingly in use for developing data-centric as well as user-centric applications. Their low-cost energy characteristics and their simplicity in programming functions, as well as their small size make them a candidate for data collection both in a wide area and in spaces difficult to access. Despite their numerous advantages, some important constraints must be addressed in order to take advantage of these specific devices. Among these constraints, the wide variability in hardware and software components makes programmability a critical point for obtaining the desired performance while maintaining a suitable productivity timeframe. In this paper, we propose a modular design of the higher-level WSN application algorithm, mainly based on communication and data storage. The work is based on a real smart-city project, using a new device, the Zolertia Z1 and the Contiki OS.
A Recommended Classification Approach for Multilevel E-commerce Marketing Using Decision Tree Method
-Bipin Nair B J
MLECM is a multilingual e-commerce used in international marketplace. This paper is a crucial part of today’s e-businesses. They generate revenue, offer an avenue for promotion and are an easily accessible means of providing information about a company. MLECM is an innovative system that helps to build its own multi-level marketing group easily. Once the members register their account, they will be connected to the network. MLECMM offers a suite of solutions based on innovative and revolutionary marketing and various types of multi-level compensation, affiliations to the system, management fees, and more in an integrated way. This MLECM can be extendable up to 7 levels using decision tree induction algorithm. Commissions are automatically calculated at ranges for each level..
Keywords: MLM,MLECM, Data Mining, decision –tree, E-commerce
Performance analysis of genetic algorithm based intelligent multipath routing protocol for mobile ad-hoc network
-Arun Biradar,Dr. Ravindra C. Thool
Mobile ad-hoc network is an infrastructure less network that is consisting of mobile nodes which communicate with each other via wireless links. This network is self-configuring, decentralized. In MANET’s all participating nodes act as router and these nodes are free to move randomly. In MANET, transmission failure occurs due to several reasons, such as node mobility, energy deficiency. In multipath routing multiple routes will be discovered for a pair of source and destination .During communication when a primary path fails the secondary path will be selected without initiating new RREQ.But the disadvantage of this is that if the nodes in secondary path are having less energy there are chances of path failure. In this paper we are proposing a genetic algorithm based Ad-hoc on demand multipath routing protocol to improve the network performance.
Keywords: Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET), Genetic Algorithm (GA), link life time (LLT), Route Error (RERR), Route Request (RREQ). Ad-hoc on demand Distance vector routing algorithm(AOMDV).
A Survey of Identity Based Key Management in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
-Pragnesh Patel,Vaghela Vimalkumar B
Today use of Ad Hoc Networks is increased gradually in our day to day life, and there are vulnerabilities in Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) due to their natural characteristics. There are several cryptographic mechanisms for MANET, one of them is Identity Based Cryptosystem and Key Management for security and efficient key management. Identity Based Cryptography is found to make key management simple and reduce memory cost of conventional public key system. In this paper we will study about existing Identity Based Key Management Schemes, their pros and cons and comparing their main features. This study will help users and researchers to build strong and robust key management scheme.
A Survey of Multicast Routing Protocols inMobile Ad Hoc Networks
-Pratikkumar Mistry,VaghelaVimalkumar B
Mobile Ad hoc Network(MANET) is a collection of wireless nodes that communicate with each other without any infrastructure. In MANET routing protocol will decide how the route will be established and maintained. Multicast routing play major role in MANET. Objective of the multicast routing protocol is to send data packet from sender to group of people with minimum use of resources. Recently there are many routing protocols have been proposed. There are many challenges in MANET. Security is the major challenge in MANET. This paper covers routing in MANET,different multicast routing protocol, various types of attacks in multicast routing and possible solutions.
Keywords— MANET,multicast routing, multicast routing protocol
Aging and perception of graphic representation: A case of icon design in mobile phone functionality
-Kingkarn Pijukkana,Nopadon Sahachaisaeree
Distinctive human attribute such as age, sex, and cultural background created a large number of problems in the understanding of graphic representation. This research is conducted by using pictorial icons in cell phone as a case study to reveal the age and cultural bias between age groups. Most of them are able to operate only the basic features. The study thus has an ultimate goal to discover a universal representation of iconic symbol, which would help enhance the learning ability of senior group in particular, and to improve the usage of other technological oriented equipments in general. We intend to study in three features: complexity of iconic symbols, the visual limitation among the age group, and the interpretation of iconic symbols. The first issue deals with learning new technology’s capability and the recollection. Next, it involves graphic icon visible format -simple, detailed and textual including size and color. Finally, we look at the 2D/3D format, realistic/symbolic, and with/without textual display. From the research, it is found that respondents are proved to be able to learn complicated level as equal as younger users. With reading glasses, they are able to visualize and understand simple icons as small as 5-10 mm, complicated as 30 mm and graphical icons with textual as 10-15 mm. Bright color is for simple icon, and cooler tone is for complicated ones. 2D is for familiar objects while 3D and realistic are for unfamiliar ones. Textual representation could enhance the understanding of representation as well.
Keywords: technology-driven; elderly; perception; mobile phone
Privacy Issues of Social Networking Sites at Workplace
-Jaideep Saxena
Given the boom in the Internet and mobile devices industry, people across the world are more connected than ever before. Social networking is the in thing. Social networking is all about developing connections or ties between friends and associates. While people have always networked with one another, the Internet has allowed user to do this in a global manner. Some great examples of popular social networks are Digg, LinkedIn, Facebook, and Twitter. Most people have heard of these services and many use them on a daily basis. These communities are able to generate income from advertising and additional paid services. This paper mainly shows types of Social Networking Sites i.e. Public Social Network Site and Internal Social Network Site, Use of social networking sites at workplace, describe the effect of public social network site at workplace, Potential privacy issues in Social Network Sites at work and describe needs of internal or private social network site at workplace.
Indirect Discrimination Prevention is a Method for Providing Confidentiality in Data Mining
-Neenu Mary Kuruvila,V.Vennila
In data mining, discrimination is a very important issue when considering the legal and ethical aspects of privacy preservation. It is more clear that most of the people do not have a wish to discriminated based on their race, nationality, religion, age and so on. This problem mainly arises when these kind of attributes are used for decision making purpose such as giving them a job, loan. Insurance etc.. For this reason discovering such attributes and eliminating them from the training data without affecting their decision-making utility is essential. So we introduce an antidiscrimination techniques which including discrimination discovery and prevention. Discrimination is two types. Direct and indirect. Direct discrimination is occurs when decision making is based upon some sensitive attributes. Indirect discrimination is occurs when decision making is based upon non sensitive attributes which are correlated with sensitive attributes. Most people understand direct discrimination. Indirect discrimination occurs where the effect of certain requirements, conditions or practices imposed by an employer or education provider has an adverse impact disproportionately on one group or other. Indirect discrimination generally occurs when a rule or condition, which is applied equally to everyone, can be met by a considerably smaller proportion of people from a particular group, the rule is to their disadvantage, and it cannot be justified on other grounds. The law applies to employers and providers of education or training.
KeyTerms- data mining, antidiscrimination,indirect discrimination prevention, rule generalization, rule protection, privacy preservation.
Study of Voice Patterns of Various Disease affected Humans
-D. Karunanithi, A. Vinodh Chiranjeevi, G. Shantanu
This study is about to analysing the voice of various disease affected humans. We are going to show the difference in the frequency of normal people versus disease affected people. The various frequency of the disease affected people and non disease affected humans are analyzed and compared. We analyze the voice of medication taken by the disease affected people. We frequently analyze the voice of the disease affected humans under medication to check whether the voice pattern is becoming similar to the non disease affected humans. We using PRATT and MATLAB to do the analysis.
Keywords : Speech analysis , Speech pattern, speech recognition.
A Review: Color Models in Image Processing
-Harmeet Kaur Kelda,Prabhpreet Kaur
Nowadays color image processing widely utilized in multimedia, graphics and computer vision applications. Color spaces provide a rational method to specify order, manipulate and effectively display the object colors taken into consideration. There are various models based on human perception, on color recognition, on various color components etc. A few papers on various applications such as lane detection, face detection, fruit quality evaluation etc based on these color models have been published. A survey on widely used models RGB,HSI, HSV, RGI etc is represented in this paper.
Keywords: Image processing, Color models, RGB, HSI, HSV, RGI
Certain Investigation on Missing Value Imputation Techniques
Missing values can cause incorrect conclusions about data. Correspondingly, substitution of the missing values may introduce inaccuracies and irregularity. In the final result, a data value missing is the main drawback. Due to this problem, the system performance has the highest error rate in other words it degrades the system performance. Additionally, most of the analysis methods cannot be performed if there are missing values in the data. Some of the techniques are explained in this survey article. The main goal of this survey is to present an overview of the missing value imputation techniques. And also it gives the Bandwidth Selection and the Kernel Function Selection techniques related to the missing value estimation. This demonstration of these techniques is used to obtain the efficient scheme for missing value or data estimation. We can obtain the more efficient method or we may propose the new technique to overcome the problems in these existing approaches. This survey article is intended to provide easy accessibility to the main ideas for non-experts.
Keywords: Missing data imputation, Kernel Function Selection, Bandwidth Selection, and Statistical Imputation for Missing Data
Analysis of Image Compression Performance of Wavelet Techniques
-Okuwobi Idowu Paul, Yonghua Lu
This paper present performance-based comparative analysis on wavelet image compression using different wavelet-based techniques. This research covers some background of wavelet analysis, data compression and how different wavelets techniques were used in image compression. The techniques involved in the comparison process are ASWDR, SPIHT, and the new standard JPEG2000. The compression performance of these technique were then compare using different images and different parameters to ascertain each technique compression performances. The quality of the images is calculated by using three performance parameters PSNR (Peak Signal to Noise Ratio), EC (Edge Correlation), and WAPE (Weighted Average of PSNR and EC) values.
Impact of Cultural Diversities on Website Design
-Mehak Sambyal,Jatinder Manhas
The web is one of the most revolutionary and global technique influencing every aspect of the people throughout the world including culture. The web has become the most intelligible technique throughout the world which enables distribution of services through its websites. The professionals and designers suggest that a well designed user interface is more influential and improves the performance of the website. In this paper, the authors have examined and found out the cultural influences on website design. Culture can be defined as a group of people having certain things in common which could affect the website design. The authors in this paper took different charity websites from North and South India and examined them by comparing the differences in the design with respect to culture. Authors examined these websites for 5 different parameters i.e. Information, Visual design, page layout, user input and multimedia. Findings suggest that north Indian and south Indian websites differ in terms of color, their logos and the style of menu they are using which are influenced by their local cultures. The authors found that difference in culture between the two different regions plays a vital role in website design.
Keywords: Culture, Website Design, Website parameters, Visual Design.
A Recent Survey on Unstructured Data to Structured Data in Distributed Data Mining
-Padmapriya.G, M.Hemalatha
The organization of unstructured data is recognized as one of the major uncertain problems in the information industry and data mining paradigm. It will be in the form of computerized information that moreover, does not have a data model and there are not simply used by data mining. The task of managing unstructured data signifies possibly the major data management opportunity for our community subsequently managing relational data. The communities users such as KDD, Semantic web, AI and web, to industrial users such as Google, Yahoo, and Microsoft.This paper presents a study and analysis of the unstructured to structured distributed data mining. Several methods are available to manage unstructured data. The results of this analysis show that, there is a lack in managing unstructured data into structured data. Here, given a discussion about the impact of unstructured data in distributed data mining.
Keywords: Unstructured data, structured data, Distributed data mining, visualization, Semantic web.
Importance of unified Modelling Language for Test Case Generation in Software Testing
-Bipin Pandey,Rituraj Jain
Manual testing usually required high number of resources, as well as it incurred high cost and time. To reduce time consumption and to increase reliability researchers have tried to automate it. One of the important criteria of testing is test case generation which describes tests that need to be run on the program to verify that the program runs as expected. In many software development organizations, the cost of testing can account for more than 40% of the total development cost for a software system. Researchers are exploring the possibilities of using UML Diagrams to finding good set of test cases. This paper aim to exploring few of the approached based on the UML Diagram to generate test cases for effective software testing.
Keywords: Activity Diagram, Class Diagram, Collaboration Diagram, Object Diagram, Sequence Diagram, Software Testing, State Chart Diagram, Unified Modeling Language, Use Case Diagram.
Defect Detection in Fabric Images using Singular Value Decomposition Technique
Defect detection is one of the problems in image processing and many different methods based on texture analysis have been proposed. In this paper, a method is proposed for detecting defects in fabric image textures based on singular value decomposition technique. The proposed approach applied first in artificially simulated fabric textures and then real fabric textures. The proposed algorithm shows good result to detect all types of defects occurred in fabric images. High detection rate and low computational complexity are advantages of this proposed approach.
Survey and Comparative Study on Resource Allocation Strategies in Cloud Computing Environment
-Vinayak Awasare,Sudarshan Deshmukh
Cloud computing is an essential ingredient of modern computing systems Cloud computing provides an on demand service because it offers dynamic resource allocation for reliable and highly available services in pay as-you-consume manner to public. In Cloud computing environment multiple cloud users can request number of cloud services in parallel. So there must be a provision that all resources which are made available to requesting user in efficient manner to satisfy their need. In this Survey paper a review of various strategies for dynamic resource allocation in cloud computing is shown based on Linear Scheduling Strategy for Resource Allocation, Topology Aware Resource Allocation (TARA) and Dynamic Resource Allocation for Parallel Data Processing. Moreover limitations significance and advantages of using Resource Allocation in Cloud computing systems is also discussed.
Index Terms— Cloud Computing, Dynamic Resource Allocation, Resource Management, Resource Scheduling.
Adaptive Image Warping Using Disparity Map-Based Rendering For Hole Prevention In 3D View Synthesis
A popular approach to convert video is given by depth image-based rendering methods. In each video, the depth map is associated with an image frame is used to generate a virtual view. Here, attention on the problem to generate the virtual videos of different viewpoints from a given video and associated depth maps at a viewpoint so that the viewers can realistically sense the depths. Here, shortage of knowledge about the 3D structure of a scene and its corresponding texture and 2D video conversion , certainly leads to holes in the resulting 3D image as a result of newly-exposed areas. An adaptive image warping approach as an enhancement to the regular approach is used to reduce the computational time and computational cost. The new algorithm (DMBR) exploits the smoothness of a typical depth map to reduce the complexity of the underlying optimization problem and deformation process is necessary, which is required to prevent holes. This is achieved by splitting a depth map into blocks of homogeneous depth using quad trees and Here, the disparity maps have been produces two virtual views. Virtual left and right views are created using the reconstructed disparity maps. The proposed approach for the pre-processing of depth maps to prevent holes during the view synthesis and it used to to generate the virtual videos of different viewpoints from a given video and associated depth maps at a viewpoint so that the viewers can accurately sense the depths and spatio-temporal global optimization approach that formulates an energy function considering depth map, image structure, texture information and patch shift and this method synthesize the virtual views from a single video-plus-depth video sequence. So finally, we obtain the virtual view of the depth image location on the video image frame.
KeyTerms—2D-to-3D-conversion, depth image-based rendering, Disparity map based rendering, hole-filling, image warping, optimization.
Sentence Level Text Clustering using a Fuzzy Hierarchical Relational Clustering Algorithm
Sentence clustering plays an important role in many text processing activities. For example, various authors have argued that incorporating sentence clustering into extractive multi document summarization helps avoid problems of content overlap, leading to better coverage. Sentence clustering is important to cluster the sentence which is likely to be related to more than one theme or topic present within a document or set of documents. In existing system a novel fuzzy clustering algorithm is used that operates on relational input data. The algorithm uses a graph representation of the data, and operates in an Expectation-Maximization framework in which the graph centrality of an object in the graph is interpreted as a likelihood. Results of applying the algorithm to sentence clustering tasks demonstrate that the algorithm is capable of identifying overlapping clusters of semantically related sentences, and that it is therefore of potential use in a variety of text mining tasks. Proposed system improve the result of the clustering by applying fuzzy theory into hierarchical clustering method. After datasets were divided into several sub-clusters using partitioning method, fuzzy graph of sub-clusters was constructed by analyzing the linked fuzzy degree among the sub-clusters. By making a cut graph for the fuzzy graph, the connected components of the fuzzy graph is determined, which were the result of clustering. The results of experimental study in data sets with arbitrary shape and size are very encouraging. The experimental study help us to efficiently clustering the sentence level text.
KeyTerms—2D-to-3D-conversion, depth image-based rendering, Disparity map based rendering, hole-filling, image warping, optimization.
Intelligent Multicast Congestion Control based on Expert-control with RBFNN for Wireless Networks
-B. Subramani,Dr. T. Karthikeyan
Wireless networks are inherently limited by battery power and bandwidth constraints. They are characterized by mobility, random changes in connectivity, fluctuations in channel and interference due to neighboring nodes etc. Due to these factors, packet loss of a wireless network is much more than that of a wired network, in which packet loss occurs mainly due to congestion in the network. Congestion in a network is characterized by delay and packet loss in the network. This leads to the requirement for Congestion Control mechanism. Several researchers proposed various Congestion Control mechanisms based on their observation. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages. In this paper, Expert-Control based Intelligent Multicast Congestion Control (ECMCC) is proposed. ECMCC detects the network congestion state according to network relative queuing delay and packet loss, feedbacks information to multicast source based on representatives set mechanism, distinguishes between wireless link errors and network congestion, and judges the current network state, then takes different control strategies to adjust the sending rate of multicast source. The knowledge base is used in the expert controller module in the proposed technique. This knowledge base is generated using the artificial neural network called Radial Basis Function Neural Networks (RBFNN). The simulation result shows the proposed technique results in better congestion control and improves the network throughput.
Keywords--- Intelligent Multicast Congestion Control, Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Radial Basis Function Neural Networks (RBFNN), Knowledge Base
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