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IJCTA-Volume 5 Issue 4/ July-August 2014
S.No
Title/Author Name
Page No
1
A Steganographic Method for Data Hiding in Binary Image using Edge based Grids
-Krupali V. Deshmukh,Prof. Gyankamal J. Chhajed
Abstract
This paper presents a new data hiding method for hiding data in a Binary Image using Edge based Grid. Unlike existing block based approaches for data hiding, this method makes use of the grid which is formed of edges along the objects present in input image. These grids are obtained by tracing the object contours from a valid contour starting location in anticlockwise direction. Once the grid is obtained we divide this grid into number of segments called Contour Segments. These Contour Segments are checked for Embeddabilty depending on the direction in which they are traced. If the Contour Segment matches the L-shaped Pattern then it is considered as Embeddable. Data bits are embedded into these embeddable Contour Segments. Experimental Result shows that the proposed method achieves good perceptional quality and payload for images with low resolution also. Use of interchangeable patterns ensures correct extraction of data without the help of original image.
1369-1374
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2
An Extensive Analysis of Open Source Wireless Network Simulators
-Koushik Banerjee,Hemant Sharma
Abstract
Now a day it has been observed that most of the researchers are busy in building new simulators or extending the existing simulation tools so that analysis of protocols can be done and conclusions can be drawn whether the protocols is workable in the real world. To evaluate the performance of protocols on real network is too much hectic in terms of cost and complexity. So simulators are needed for reducing cost as well as complexity. Network simulations are widely used by researchers to test their own hypothesis and protocols on networks without implementing in the real world. This approach saves the combination of cost, complexity and time. There are various types of simulators available in market among which some are general purpose simulator others are special purpose simulators. Each simulator has its own pros and cons therefore the researcher uses different simulators or emulators for specific research. In this paper, explanations and comparison of some available network simulators like NS-2, NS-3, GloMoSim, Avrora, COOJA, J-SIM and SENSE on the basis of multiple parameters is presented. The aim of this paper is to identify an effective simulator for research in Wireless sensor network.
1375-1379
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3
Wormhole Attack on On Demand Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
-Sumet Mehta,Gaurav Monga
Abstract
A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) consists of mobile wireless nodes. In MANET nodes are self-motivated topologies can randomly change their geographic locations. Wireless networks are susceptible to many attacks, including an attack known as the wormhole attack. On occurrence of wormhole can cause a significant breakdown in communication across a wireless network. This paper explores and compares the effect of wormhole attacks on the performance of on demand routing protocols in mobile ad hoc network (MANET). The evaluation has been done by studying and comparing end to end delay, packet delivery ratio and throughput for wormhole attack and without wormhole attack.
Keywords— Mobile ad hoc networks; routing protocol; wormhole attacks; end to end delay; throughput; packet delivery ratio.
1380-1383
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4
Applications of Hidden Markov Model: State-of-the-Art
-Marcin PIETRZYKOWSKI,Wojciech SAŁABUN
Abstract
This paper performs a state-of-the-art literature review to classify and interpret the ongoing and emerging issues associated with the Hidden Markov Model (HMM) in the last decade. HMM is a commonly used method in many scientific areas. It is a temporal probabilistic model in which the state of the process is described by a single discrete random variable. The theory of HMMs was developed in the late 1960s. Now, it is especially known for its application in temporal pattern recognition, i.e. speech, handwriting, and bioinformatics. After a brief description of the study methodology, this paper comprehensively compares the most important HMM publications by field of interest, most cited authors, authors' nationalities, and scientific journals. The comparison is based on papers indexed in the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Knowledge and ScienceDirect databases.
Keywords: Markov Chains, Hidden Markov Model, application areas, literature review.
1384-1391
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5
Secure energy Efficient Routing in Wireless Sensor Network
-Reshma Patil, Prof.S.M.Shinde
Abstract
Wireless sensor network is autonomous and infrastructure less network. Now day’s different types of WSN applications are developed. Secure transmission of information in WSN is an important issue. In this paper we introduce new approach for WSN security, we propose Secure Energy Efficient Routing (SEER) schema that consider cost of providing security and effects on energy efficiency. Secrete sharing method used for providing security. In this method information is divided into multiple shares and sends via multiple disjoint paths from source to destination at different point of time. At the destination end the original information reconstructed by combining the shares received via different paths at different point of time. We also calculate cost for security in term of time and its effect on energy efficiency. Simulate the different types of attacks like wormhole, sink hole etc.
Keywords: Sensor networks, security, energy efficiency in WSN.
1392-1397
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6
Considerations and Factors for Consumer Mobile Services Adoption in Populations with Diverse Ages
-Nicholas Mathiowetz,Rao Nemani
Abstract
Research was done to discover what factors prevent or limit consumer adoption of mobile technologies provided by financial institutions. This research continued with a study of what role peers and social interactions have on a person’s intention to adopt mobile financial technology and strived to determine the best method to encourage technology adoption. In the effort to maximize adoption, the research also included why certain users continue to use outdated technology and delivery channels. It was discovered that age, while generally considered a significant factor, is heavily influenced by social factors. This research is has valuable insights into the consumer the resulting conceptual model can be used to formulate a strategy to encourage adoption by incorporating perception management into the technology development cycle. The findings from this study can assist leaders in both information technology and business as they review their future strategic planning in regards to mobile member service technologies.
Keywords–Technology adaption, technology acceptance, mobile devices and mobile technologies
1398-1404
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7
Isolated Speech Recognition Using Digital Signal Processor
-Umarani J.Suryawanshi,Dr.S.R.Ganorkar
Abstract
This paper describes a support vector machine is a 5-10 words each is collected under acoustically controlled room is taken. MFCC are extracted from speech signal of promising machine learning technique that has generated a lot of interest in the pattern recognition. It is an approach of isolated speech recognition by Digital Signal Processor TMS620C6713 using Mel scale Frequency Cepstral Coefficients and Euclidean distance or support vector machine. Several features are extracted from speech signal of spoken words. An experiments database of total five speakers, speaking spoken words. To compare inter speaking differences Euclidean distance or support vector machine used as classifier.
1405-1408
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8
Use of 40-Point Feature Extraction for Recognition of Handwritten Numerals and English Characters
-Karanbir Kaur,Naresh Kumar Garg
Abstract
Character recognition for handwritten isolated text is an attention-grabbing area of optical character recognition (OCR). This paper puts forward technique for recognition of offline isolated characters on English and numeric, which uses 40-point metric method for feature extraction, which a zone based method that segregates the image into 40 zones, extracting features from each zone and then structuring an image. Neuro-Fuzzy and Weighted KMA classifiers are compared for recognising the characters. The test results show, that the proposed techniques show relatively high accuracy for the handwritten recognition. Also time elapsed for training is calculated and contrasted for both the classifiers. This system will be suitable for converting handwritten documents into structural text forms and recognizing handwritten names.
Keywords: Handwritten character, 40-point method, KMA, Neuro-fuzzy
1409-1411
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9
Privacy Preservation of Frequent Dataset to be Distributed
-Sachin J.Janbandhu,Dr.S.M.Chaware
Abstract
Distributed Data Mining provides computational strength as it can share effectively the large amount of data among its various computational resources connected in a network. In order to design the accurate data models, this huge amount of precise information must be distributed among various computational clients to perform data mining in distributed manner. It will not only result in accurate data model design but also increases the performance of computational process. Distribution of precise information among various computational resources results in the problem of privacy preservation of the confidential information. In case of frequent element mining which is important in defining the association rules, it becomes very easy to identify the pattern of information. There are following possibilities when the data can be leaked such as
1. If Computational Resources compromised each other at the time of distribution of data.
2. During the conversation between participant computational resources.
3. At the time of frequent item mining.
This paper proposes a solution to resolve this problem, by designing a twofold logical model consist of two phases. In first phase the data is partitioned in such way that miners will not be able to identify the real data. And second phase logic will be used at the time of mining process so that miners will not identify the frequent item set as well as even after compromising each other they will be unable to reconstruct the original data.
Index Terms: Privacy preserving data mining, multilevel trust, random perturbation
1412-1416
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10
Use of NLP to Mine Frequent Pattern for XML Query-Answering Support
-Alfiya Iqbal Ahmed Shaikh,Sanchika Bajpai
Abstract
Extracting information from semi structured documents is difficult task. It is more crucial as there is a huge amount of digital information on the Internet is growing rapidly. Sometimes, documents are often so large that the data set returned as answer to a query may be large to even convey interpretable knowledge. This paper describes an approach which takes RSS feeds as input for which Tree-Based Association Rules (TARs): mined rules are used. It provides more approximate and intentional information on both the structure and the contents of Extensible Markup Language (XML) documents which can then be stored in XML format as well. This generated mined knowledge is later used to provide: 1) The gist of the structure and the content of the XML document and 2) Quick and more approximate answers to queries. This paper focuses on the second feature. In this paper we show a novel approach for finding frequent patterns in XML documents.
1417-1422
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11
An Approach for Improving Network Performance using Cross-Domain Cooperative Secrecy-Maintaining Firewall Optimization
-Yogita Nikhare,Prof. Anil Bende
Abstract
Firewalls are commonly deployed on the Internet for securing private networks. A firewall checks each incoming or outgoing packet to choose whether to accept or reject the packet based on its policy. Optimizing firewall policies is necessary for improving network performance. The optimization process involves cooperative computation between the two firewalls with no any party disclosing its strategy to the other.In this paper we are going to explain first cross-domain privacy-preserving cooperative firewall strategy optimization protocol. For any two adjoining firewalls belonging to two dissimilar administrative domains, our protocol can recognize in each firewall the rules that can be removed because of the other firewall.
Keywords- Cross- Domain, Interfirewall Optimization
1423-1427
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12
Trust Management Enabling & Data Dynamic for Storage Services in Cloud Computing
-Trupti V. Junghare,Prof. Mirza M. Baig
Abstract
Computing has been widely used for data storage and computational purposes. When we discuss about the cloud storage services, the data must be outsourced, so, there may be serious concerns about the authorization and trust management for the cloud service provider (CSP). These concerns are about confidentiality, integrity, security and access control. In this paper we are going to discuss various models in brief such as Provable data possession (PDP), Proof of retrievability (POR), HAIL, Attribute Based Encryption Scheme, Plutus, SiRiUS, Third party auditor (TPA) etc that are introduced for addressing such issues about cloud storage systems. This scheme supports dynamic data and trust in the cloud computing storage systems. The present system is providing a good security mechanism for stored data and proper sharing of keys among authorized users, and data owner for the cryptographic mechanism.
Keywords— Outsourced data storage, security, Trusted Auditor, Dynamic Environment.
1428-1433
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13
A Wireless Sensor Network Scheme for Power Optimization
-Ritu,Bhawna Singla
Abstract
Wireless sensor network is a collection of a large number of small devices which collects information from physical environment using sensor nodes. These nodes process, store and send the information to other nodes in the network. To transmit data sensor nodes require battery power. if a node does not have sufficient battery power then it cannot transmit data. So power optimization is a major issue in wireless sensor network. An efficient routing algorithm is required to utilize power of nodes and increase the lifetime of the network.
In this work we aim to use Dijkstra’s algorithm as routing algorithm to reduce power consumption. List of nodes with their battery power level is given. Threshold battery level is assumed to be 50%. We use Dijkstra’s algorithm to find optimal path between source node and destination node.
1434-1437
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14
The Revised Ford-Fulkerson Algorithm Finding Maximal Flows On Extended Networks
-Tran Ngoc Viet,Tran Quoc Chien,Le Manh Thanh
Abstract
Graph is a powerful mathematical tool applied in many fields as transportation, communication, informatics, economy, … In ordinary graph the weights of edges and vertexes are considered indepently where the length of a path is the sum of weights of the edges and the vertexes on this path. However, in many practical problems, weights at a vertex are not the same for all paths passing this vertex, but depend on coming and leaving edges. The paper develops a model of extended network that can be applied to modelize many practical problems more exact and effective. The main contribution of this paper is the revised Ford-Fulkerson algorithm finding maximal flows on extended networks.
Key word - graph, network, flow,maximalFlow, algorithm.
1438-1442
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15
Infrastructure as a service: Evolution and Implementation
-Kamal Kant Jaiswal,Dr. Professor A.K.Dua
Abstract
Many advantages of cloud computing is making it popular day by day. the few listed advantages are such as high performance, pay per use modules, high level of security and so on.Simple networking applications are the parent of cloud industry. Concepts such as grid, cluster and utility computing helped in the formation of basic infrastructure as a service concept. Concurrent and parallel processing with a SOA (service oriented architecture) set a platform for virtualization of resources making cloud computing come into reality. This paper is totally dedicated to the IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service) model of the cloud computing. All the up to date information about the IaaS model has been deeply researched and drafted by the authors of this paper. Thus, the appropriate idea behind the development of the paper was to discuss the types of infrastructure in detail with all the certain issues which regarding to the designing and implementation of the IaaS. Thus the paper can be considered as a documentation on how the historical growth of Information technology towards cloud computing was done.
Keywords - Utility Computing, SOA, Grid, Clusters, IaaS, Cloud Computing.
1443-1445
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16
Attribute-Based Data Sharing In Cloud Computing With Attribute Policy
-Swarup kshatriya, Dr.Sandip M Chaware
Abstract
In recent adoption and diffusion of the facts and figures sharing paradigm in circulated systems such as online social systems or cloud computing, there have been increasing claims and anxieties for distributed facts and figures security. One of the most demanding matters in facts and figures sharing schemes is the enforcement of access principles and the support of principles updates. Cipher text policy attribute-based encryption (CP-ABE) is evolving an undertaking cryptographic solution to this issue. It endows facts and figures owners to characterize their own get access to principles over client attributes and enforce the policies on the facts and figures to be circulated. although, the benefit arrives with a foremost drawback which is renowned as a key escrow difficulty. The key lifetime center could decrypt any notes addressed to specific users by developing their personal keys. This is not apt for facts and figures distributing scenarios where the facts and figures proprietor would like to make their personal facts and figures only accessible to designated users. In supplement, applying CP-ABE in the facts and figures sharing scheme inserts another dispute with regard to the client revocation since the get access to principles are characterized only over the ascribe universe. Thus, in this study, we suggest an innovative CP-ABE design for facts and by exploiting the figures sharing scheme at the attribute of the system architecture. Possibility of new designed suggested design features achieves two things, first is key escrow problem that could be explained by the escrow-free key generating another protocol, which is constructed utilizing the protected two-party computation between the key lifetime center and the data-storing center, and the second is fine-grained user revocation per each attribute could be finished by proxy encryption which takes advantage of the selective attribute assembly key circulation on top of the ABE.
The presentation and security analyses indicate that the suggested design is effective to securely organize the data distributed in the facts and figures distributing system. We proposed a encryption with efficient revocation scheme with central-control revocation, which is more suitable for large-scaled access control system. The improvement of secret key with binary tree structure can reduce the communication and computational costs in key update algorithm. Moreover, we demonstrated that the delegating capability can be easily provided in the proposed scheme, but all the delegates are restricted by their original delegators‘ unique identifiers.
Index Terms— Attribute, CP-ABE, Data Sharing, Escrow Problem, Key Generation, Central-control revocation.
1446-1450
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17
Detect and Remove Co-Operative Black Hole Attack by Relying on Reliable Node in MENENT
-Sunita Kumari,Preeti,Neelam
Abstract
Now days Wireless networking is an emerging technology that allows users to access information and services electronically, regardless of their geographic position. The use of wireless communication between mobile users has become increasingly popular due to recent performance advancements in computer and wireless technologies. The approach which is the focus of this research is to form a wireless ad hoc network among users wanting to communicate with each other with no pre-established infrastructure. In this paper we discuss Security agents in MANET’s have presented an algorithm for the prevention of cooperative black hole attack in MANET.
Keywords— Menent, black hole, communication, wireless network
1451-1454
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18
Image Clustering using GA based Fuzzy C-Means Algorithm
-A.J.Patil,R.R.Karhe,M.A.Aher
Abstract
Clustering or grouping, is a process that searches for “natural” structure with in a data set. It has great theoretical and practical importance in the fields of image processing and pattern recognition applications. The process involves sorting the objects in to group of clusters. The traditional soft (fuzzy c-means) FCM algorithm is sensitive to noise and intensity in heterogeneity. So,by using a hybrid GA-FCM algorithm the limitations of FCM are overcome by the optimum solution of the evolutionary genetic algorithm. Genetic algorithms determine the optimal value of a criterion by simulating the evolution of a population until survival of best fitted individuals. The results of the GA-FCM algorithm are compared with the traditional FCM algorithm. The performance is evaluated by the cluster accuracy rate (CAR).
Keywords:Clustering, FCM, GA, GA-FCM, CAR.
1455-1460
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19
Design and Performance Analysis of CMOS Full Adder with 14 Transistor
-Ruchika Sharma,Rajesh Mehra
Abstract
Full adders are important components used in VLSI. In most of the systems the adder lies in the critical path that determines the overall speed of the system. So enhancing the performance of the building block of the adder that is the 1-bit full adder cell is a significant goal. The low power VLSI demand has been pushing the development of aggressive design methodologies to reduce the power consumption drastically. To meet this growing demand, various new low power adder cells have been designed by sacrificing the MOS Transistor count that considerably increases the speed and decreases the power and reduces the serious threshold loss problem. In this paper, 14 transistors full adder is designed and results shows that this adder consume less power with very less delay and threshold loss problem.
Keywords— Arithmetic circuit, full adder, low power, very large-scale integration (VLSI)
1461-1465
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20
BIG DATA: Advancement in Data Analytics
-Pooja,Reema Gupta,Sandeep Jaglan
Abstract
A small data becomes BIG Data when it is collected from the different resources like social media ,business system, financial system, governance,banking,insurance,health care etc. Now the challenge is to manage,store and prossed it.RDBMS and several tools are used to process it but can not possible.In this paper we focus those methodology in which BIG Data is manage in this way that provide meaningful information from the hidden pattern.
Keywords: BIG Data,attributes,methodology.
1466-1469
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